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Date: Fri, 20 Jan 2017 17:14:19 -0800
From: Thomas Garnier <thgarnie@...gle.com>
To: Andy Lutomirski <luto@...capital.net>
Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@...utronix.de>, Ingo Molnar <mingo@...hat.com>, 
	"H . Peter Anvin" <hpa@...or.com>, Kees Cook <keescook@...omium.org>, 
	"Rafael J . Wysocki" <rjw@...ysocki.net>, Pavel Machek <pavel@....cz>, Andy Lutomirski <luto@...nel.org>, 
	Borislav Petkov <bp@...e.de>, Christian Borntraeger <borntraeger@...ibm.com>, Brian Gerst <brgerst@...il.com>, 
	He Chen <he.chen@...ux.intel.com>, Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@...el.com>, 
	Chen Yucong <slaoub@...il.com>, Baoquan He <bhe@...hat.com>, 
	Paul Gortmaker <paul.gortmaker@...driver.com>, Joerg Roedel <joro@...tes.org>, 
	Paolo Bonzini <pbonzini@...hat.com>, Radim Krčmář <rkrcmar@...hat.com>, 
	Fenghua Yu <fenghua.yu@...el.com>, X86 ML <x86@...nel.org>, 
	"linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org" <linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org>, 
	"linux-pm@...r.kernel.org" <linux-pm@...r.kernel.org>, kvm list <kvm@...r.kernel.org>, 
	"kernel-hardening@...ts.openwall.com" <kernel-hardening@...ts.openwall.com>
Subject: Re: [PATCH v1 3/3] x86: Make the GDT remapping read-only on 64 bit

On Fri, Jan 20, 2017 at 5:06 PM, Andy Lutomirski <luto@...capital.net> wrote:
> On Fri, Jan 20, 2017 at 8:41 AM, Thomas Garnier <thgarnie@...gle.com> wrote:
>> This patch makes the GDT remapped pages read-only to prevent corruption.
>> This change is done only on 64 bit.
>>
>> The native_load_tr_desc function was adapted to correctly handle a
>> read-only GDT. The LTR instruction always writes to the GDT TSS entry.
>> This generates a page fault if the GDT is read-only. This change checks
>> if the current GDT is a remap and swap GDTs as needed. This function was
>> tested by booting multiple machines and checking hibernation works
>> properly.
>>
>> KVM SVM and VMX were adapted to use the writeable GDT. On VMX, the GDT
>> description and writeble address were put in two per-cpu variables for
>> convenience. For testing, VMs were started and restored on multiple
>> configurations.
>>
>> Signed-off-by: Thomas Garnier <thgarnie@...gle.com>
>> ---
>> Based on next-20170119
>> ---
>>  arch/x86/include/asm/desc.h      | 44 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----
>>  arch/x86/include/asm/processor.h |  1 +
>>  arch/x86/kernel/cpu/common.c     | 36 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
>>  arch/x86/kvm/svm.c               |  5 ++---
>>  arch/x86/kvm/vmx.c               | 23 +++++++++++++--------
>>  5 files changed, 86 insertions(+), 23 deletions(-)
>>
>> diff --git a/arch/x86/include/asm/desc.h b/arch/x86/include/asm/desc.h
>> index 12080d87da3b..6ed68d449c7b 100644
>> --- a/arch/x86/include/asm/desc.h
>> +++ b/arch/x86/include/asm/desc.h
>> @@ -50,6 +50,13 @@ static inline struct desc_struct *get_cpu_gdt_table(unsigned int cpu)
>>         return per_cpu(gdt_page, cpu).gdt;
>>  }
>>
>> +static inline struct desc_struct *get_current_gdt_table(void)
>> +{
>> +       return get_cpu_var(gdt_page).gdt;
>> +}
>
> This function is poorly named IMO.  Which GDT address does it return?
> Can we call it get_current_direct_gdt()?  Also, IIRC
> this_cpu_read(gdt_page.gdt) generates better code.
>

I agree. I will use this_cpu_read and rename the function.

>> +
>> +struct desc_struct *get_remapped_gdt(int cpu);
>
> And get_current_fixmap_gdt(void) perhaps?  And why isn't it inline?
> It's very simple.
>

I was not sure about the KVM dependencies on fixmap. It should be
alright, I will add it to desc.h.

>> +/*
>> + * The LTR instruction marks the TSS GDT entry as busy. In 64bit, the GDT is
>> + * a read-only remapping. To prevent a page fault, the GDT is switched to the
>> + * original writeable version when needed.
>> + */
>> +#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
>> +static inline void native_load_tr_desc(void)
>> +{
>> +       struct desc_ptr gdt;
>> +       int cpu = raw_smp_processor_id();
>> +       bool restore = false;
>> +       struct desc_struct *remapped_gdt;
>> +
>> +       native_store_gdt(&gdt);
>> +       remapped_gdt = get_remapped_gdt(cpu);
>> +
>> +       /* Swap and restore only if the current GDT is the remap. */
>> +       if (gdt.address == (unsigned long)remapped_gdt) {
>> +               load_percpu_gdt(cpu);
>
> This line (load_percpu_gdt(cpu)) is hard to understand because of the
> poorly named function.
>

It should make more sense with direct/fixmap naming.

>>  /* Load a fixmap remapping of the per-cpu GDT */
>>  void load_remapped_gdt(int cpu)
>>  {
>>         struct desc_ptr gdt_descr;
>>         unsigned long idx = FIX_GDT_REMAP_BEGIN + cpu;
>>
>> -       __set_fixmap(idx, __pa(get_cpu_gdt_table(cpu)), PAGE_KERNEL);
>> +       __set_fixmap(idx, __pa(get_cpu_gdt_table(cpu)), GDT_REMAP_PROT);
>
> How about PAGE_FIXMAP_GDT instead of GDT_REMAP_PROT?
>

Sure.

>> diff --git a/arch/x86/kvm/svm.c b/arch/x86/kvm/svm.c
>> index d0414f054bdf..da261f231017 100644
>> --- a/arch/x86/kvm/svm.c
>> +++ b/arch/x86/kvm/svm.c
>> @@ -741,7 +741,6 @@ static int svm_hardware_enable(void)
>>
>>         struct svm_cpu_data *sd;
>>         uint64_t efer;
>> -       struct desc_ptr gdt_descr;
>>         struct desc_struct *gdt;
>>         int me = raw_smp_processor_id();
>>
>> @@ -763,8 +762,7 @@ static int svm_hardware_enable(void)
>>         sd->max_asid = cpuid_ebx(SVM_CPUID_FUNC) - 1;
>>         sd->next_asid = sd->max_asid + 1;
>>
>> -       native_store_gdt(&gdt_descr);
>> -       gdt = (struct desc_struct *)gdt_descr.address;
>> +       gdt = get_current_gdt_table();
>>         sd->tss_desc = (struct kvm_ldttss_desc *)(gdt + GDT_ENTRY_TSS);
>>
>>         wrmsrl(MSR_EFER, efer | EFER_SVME);
>> @@ -4251,6 +4249,7 @@ static void reload_tss(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu)
>>
>>         struct svm_cpu_data *sd = per_cpu(svm_data, cpu);
>>         sd->tss_desc->type = 9; /* available 32/64-bit TSS */
>> +
>>         load_TR_desc();
>>  }
>
> Paulo, are you okay with the performance hit here?  Is there any easy
> way to avoid it?
>
>>
>> diff --git a/arch/x86/kvm/vmx.c b/arch/x86/kvm/vmx.c
>> index d2fe3a51876c..acbf78c962d0 100644
>> --- a/arch/x86/kvm/vmx.c
>> +++ b/arch/x86/kvm/vmx.c
>> @@ -935,7 +935,8 @@ static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct vmcs *, current_vmcs);
>>   * when a CPU is brought down, and we need to VMCLEAR all VMCSs loaded on it.
>>   */
>>  static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct list_head, loaded_vmcss_on_cpu);
>> -static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct desc_ptr, host_gdt);
>> +static DEFINE_PER_CPU(struct desc_ptr, host_gdt_desc);
>> +static DEFINE_PER_CPU(unsigned long, host_gdt);
>
> This pair of variables is inscrutible IMO.  It should at least have a
> comment, but better names would help even more.
>

Easy to comments. What name would you suggest for GDT descriptor?

>>
>>  /*
>>   * We maintian a per-CPU linked-list of vCPU, so in wakeup_handler() we
>> @@ -1997,10 +1998,9 @@ static void reload_tss(void)
>>         /*
>>          * VT restores TR but not its size.  Useless.
>>          */
>> -       struct desc_ptr *gdt = this_cpu_ptr(&host_gdt);
>>         struct desc_struct *descs;
>>
>> -       descs = (void *)gdt->address;
>> +       descs = (void *)get_cpu_var(host_gdt);
>>         descs[GDT_ENTRY_TSS].type = 9; /* available TSS */
>>         load_TR_desc();
>>  }
>> @@ -2061,7 +2061,6 @@ static bool update_transition_efer(struct vcpu_vmx *vmx, int efer_offset)
>>
>>  static unsigned long segment_base(u16 selector)
>>  {
>> -       struct desc_ptr *gdt = this_cpu_ptr(&host_gdt);
>>         struct desc_struct *d;
>>         unsigned long table_base;
>>         unsigned long v;
>> @@ -2069,7 +2068,7 @@ static unsigned long segment_base(u16 selector)
>>         if (!(selector & ~3))
>>                 return 0;
>>
>> -       table_base = gdt->address;
>> +       table_base = get_cpu_var(host_gdt);
>
> this_cpu_read() if possible, please.  But can't this just use the
> generic accessor instead of a KVM-specific percpu variable?
>

Yes, it could. In that case, we could keep host_gdt for the GDT
descriptor and use the new current direct GDT function.

>>
>>         if (selector & 4) {           /* from ldt */
>>                 u16 ldt_selector = kvm_read_ldt();
>> @@ -2185,7 +2184,7 @@ static void __vmx_load_host_state(struct vcpu_vmx *vmx)
>>  #endif
>>         if (vmx->host_state.msr_host_bndcfgs)
>>                 wrmsrl(MSR_IA32_BNDCFGS, vmx->host_state.msr_host_bndcfgs);
>> -       load_gdt(this_cpu_ptr(&host_gdt));
>> +       load_gdt(this_cpu_ptr(&host_gdt_desc));
>>  }
>
> I assume the intent is to have the VM exit restore the direct GDT,
> then to load the new TR, then to load the fixmap GDT.  Is that indeed
> the case?.
>

Yes, that's correct.

>>
>>  static void vmx_load_host_state(struct vcpu_vmx *vmx)
>> @@ -2287,7 +2286,7 @@ static void vmx_vcpu_load(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu, int cpu)
>>         }
>>
>>         if (!already_loaded) {
>> -               struct desc_ptr *gdt = this_cpu_ptr(&host_gdt);
>> +               unsigned long gdt = get_cpu_var(host_gdt);
>>                 unsigned long sysenter_esp;
>>
>>                 kvm_make_request(KVM_REQ_TLB_FLUSH, vcpu);
>> @@ -2297,7 +2296,7 @@ static void vmx_vcpu_load(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu, int cpu)
>>                  * processors.
>>                  */
>>                 vmcs_writel(HOST_TR_BASE, kvm_read_tr_base()); /* 22.2.4 */
>> -               vmcs_writel(HOST_GDTR_BASE, gdt->address);   /* 22.2.4 */
>> +               vmcs_writel(HOST_GDTR_BASE, gdt);   /* 22.2.4 */
>>
>>                 rdmsrl(MSR_IA32_SYSENTER_ESP, sysenter_esp);
>>                 vmcs_writel(HOST_IA32_SYSENTER_ESP, sysenter_esp); /* 22.2.3 */
>> @@ -3523,7 +3522,13 @@ static int hardware_enable(void)
>>                 ept_sync_global();
>>         }
>>
>> -       native_store_gdt(this_cpu_ptr(&host_gdt));
>> +       native_store_gdt(this_cpu_ptr(&host_gdt_desc));
>> +
>> +       /*
>> +        * The GDT is remapped and can be read-only, use the underlying memory
>> +        * that is always writeable.
>> +        */
>> +       per_cpu(host_gdt, cpu) = (unsigned long)get_current_gdt_table();
>
> this_cpu_write().  Better yet, just get rid of this entirely.
>

Will do. Thanks for the feedback.

> --Andy



-- 
Thomas

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