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Date: Sat,  3 Sep 2022 03:19:40 +0300
From: Alexey Izbyshev <>
Subject: [PATCH] fix potential ref count overflow in sem_open()

sem_open() attempts to avoid overflow on the future ref count increment
by computing the sum of all ref counts in semtab and checking that it's
not INT_MAX when semtab is locked for slot reservation.  This approach
suffers from a TOCTTOU: by the time semtab is re-locked after opening a
semaphore, the sum could have already been increased by a concurrent
sem_open(), so it will overflow on the increment. An individual ref
count can be overflowed as well if the call happened to open a duplicate
of the only other semaphore.

Moreover, since the overflow avoidance check admits a negative (i.e.
overflowed) sum, after this state is reached, an individual ref count
can be incremented until it reaches 1 again, and then sem_close() will
incorrectly free the semaphore, promoting what could be just a
signed-overflow UB to a use-after-free.

Fix the overflow check by accounting for the maximum possible number of
concurrent sem_open() calls that have already reserved a slot, but
haven't incremented the ref count yet.
Alternatively, we could use the number of currently reserved slots
instead of SEM_NSEMS_MAX, preserving the ability of individual ref
counts to reach INT_MAX in non-concurrent scenarios. I'm not sure
whether it matters, so I'm sending a smaller of the two fixes.

 src/thread/sem_open.c | 2 +-
 1 file changed, 1 insertion(+), 1 deletion(-)

diff --git a/src/thread/sem_open.c b/src/thread/sem_open.c
index 0ad29de9..611a3f64 100644
--- a/src/thread/sem_open.c
+++ b/src/thread/sem_open.c
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@ sem_t *sem_open(const char *name, int flags, ...)
 		if (!semtab[i].sem && slot < 0) slot = i;
 	/* Avoid possibility of overflow later */
-	if (cnt == INT_MAX || slot < 0) {
+	if (cnt > INT_MAX - SEM_NSEMS_MAX || slot < 0) {
 		errno = EMFILE;
 		return SEM_FAILED;

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