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Date: Tue, 30 Apr 2019 04:22:47 -0700
From: tip-bot for Nadav Amit <tipbot@...or.com>
To: linux-tip-commits@...r.kernel.org
Cc: bp@...en8.de, ard.biesheuvel@...aro.org, deneen.t.dock@...el.com,
        jeyu@...nel.org, torvalds@...ux-foundation.org, linux_dti@...oud.com,
        rick.p.edgecombe@...el.com, kernel-hardening@...ts.openwall.com,
        keescook@...omium.org, mhiramat@...nel.org, dave.hansen@...el.com,
        luto@...capital.net, peterz@...radead.org, namit@...are.com,
        luto@...nel.org, kristen@...ux.intel.com, mingo@...nel.org,
        tglx@...utronix.de, riel@...riel.com, linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org,
        will.deacon@....com, akpm@...ux-foundation.org, hpa@...or.com
Subject: [tip:x86/mm] x86/modules: Avoid breaking W^X while loading modules

Commit-ID:  f2c65fb3221adc6b73b0549fc7ba892022db9797
Gitweb:     https://git.kernel.org/tip/f2c65fb3221adc6b73b0549fc7ba892022db9797
Author:     Nadav Amit <namit@...are.com>
AuthorDate: Thu, 25 Apr 2019 17:11:31 -0700
Committer:  Ingo Molnar <mingo@...nel.org>
CommitDate: Tue, 30 Apr 2019 12:37:55 +0200

x86/modules: Avoid breaking W^X while loading modules

When modules and BPF filters are loaded, there is a time window in
which some memory is both writable and executable. An attacker that has
already found another vulnerability (e.g., a dangling pointer) might be
able to exploit this behavior to overwrite kernel code. Prevent having
writable executable PTEs in this stage.

In addition, avoiding having W+X mappings can also slightly simplify the
patching of modules code on initialization (e.g., by alternatives and
static-key), as would be done in the next patch. This was actually the
main motivation for this patch.

To avoid having W+X mappings, set them initially as RW (NX) and after
they are set as RO set them as X as well. Setting them as executable is
done as a separate step to avoid one core in which the old PTE is cached
(hence writable), and another which sees the updated PTE (executable),
which would break the W^X protection.

Suggested-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@...utronix.de>
Suggested-by: Andy Lutomirski <luto@...capital.net>
Signed-off-by: Nadav Amit <namit@...are.com>
Signed-off-by: Rick Edgecombe <rick.p.edgecombe@...el.com>
Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra (Intel) <peterz@...radead.org>
Cc: <akpm@...ux-foundation.org>
Cc: <ard.biesheuvel@...aro.org>
Cc: <deneen.t.dock@...el.com>
Cc: <kernel-hardening@...ts.openwall.com>
Cc: <kristen@...ux.intel.com>
Cc: <linux_dti@...oud.com>
Cc: <will.deacon@....com>
Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@...nel.org>
Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@...en8.de>
Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@...el.com>
Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@...or.com>
Cc: Jessica Yu <jeyu@...nel.org>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@...omium.org>
Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@...ux-foundation.org>
Cc: Masami Hiramatsu <mhiramat@...nel.org>
Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@...riel.com>
Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190426001143.4983-12-namit@vmware.com
Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@...nel.org>
---
 arch/x86/kernel/alternative.c | 28 +++++++++++++++++++++-------
 arch/x86/kernel/module.c      |  2 +-
 include/linux/filter.h        |  1 +
 kernel/module.c               |  5 +++++
 4 files changed, 28 insertions(+), 8 deletions(-)

diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/alternative.c b/arch/x86/kernel/alternative.c
index 599203876c32..3d2b6b6fb20c 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/alternative.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/alternative.c
@@ -668,15 +668,29 @@ void __init alternative_instructions(void)
  * handlers seeing an inconsistent instruction while you patch.
  */
 void *__init_or_module text_poke_early(void *addr, const void *opcode,
-					      size_t len)
+				       size_t len)
 {
 	unsigned long flags;
-	local_irq_save(flags);
-	memcpy(addr, opcode, len);
-	local_irq_restore(flags);
-	sync_core();
-	/* Could also do a CLFLUSH here to speed up CPU recovery; but
-	   that causes hangs on some VIA CPUs. */
+
+	if (boot_cpu_has(X86_FEATURE_NX) &&
+	    is_module_text_address((unsigned long)addr)) {
+		/*
+		 * Modules text is marked initially as non-executable, so the
+		 * code cannot be running and speculative code-fetches are
+		 * prevented. Just change the code.
+		 */
+		memcpy(addr, opcode, len);
+	} else {
+		local_irq_save(flags);
+		memcpy(addr, opcode, len);
+		local_irq_restore(flags);
+		sync_core();
+
+		/*
+		 * Could also do a CLFLUSH here to speed up CPU recovery; but
+		 * that causes hangs on some VIA CPUs.
+		 */
+	}
 	return addr;
 }
 
diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/module.c b/arch/x86/kernel/module.c
index b052e883dd8c..cfa3106faee4 100644
--- a/arch/x86/kernel/module.c
+++ b/arch/x86/kernel/module.c
@@ -87,7 +87,7 @@ void *module_alloc(unsigned long size)
 	p = __vmalloc_node_range(size, MODULE_ALIGN,
 				    MODULES_VADDR + get_module_load_offset(),
 				    MODULES_END, GFP_KERNEL,
-				    PAGE_KERNEL_EXEC, 0, NUMA_NO_NODE,
+				    PAGE_KERNEL, 0, NUMA_NO_NODE,
 				    __builtin_return_address(0));
 	if (p && (kasan_module_alloc(p, size) < 0)) {
 		vfree(p);
diff --git a/include/linux/filter.h b/include/linux/filter.h
index 6074aa064b54..14ec3bdad9a9 100644
--- a/include/linux/filter.h
+++ b/include/linux/filter.h
@@ -746,6 +746,7 @@ static inline void bpf_prog_unlock_ro(struct bpf_prog *fp)
 static inline void bpf_jit_binary_lock_ro(struct bpf_binary_header *hdr)
 {
 	set_memory_ro((unsigned long)hdr, hdr->pages);
+	set_memory_x((unsigned long)hdr, hdr->pages);
 }
 
 static inline void bpf_jit_binary_unlock_ro(struct bpf_binary_header *hdr)
diff --git a/kernel/module.c b/kernel/module.c
index 0b9aa8ab89f0..2b2845ae983e 100644
--- a/kernel/module.c
+++ b/kernel/module.c
@@ -1950,8 +1950,13 @@ void module_enable_ro(const struct module *mod, bool after_init)
 		return;
 
 	frob_text(&mod->core_layout, set_memory_ro);
+	frob_text(&mod->core_layout, set_memory_x);
+
 	frob_rodata(&mod->core_layout, set_memory_ro);
+
 	frob_text(&mod->init_layout, set_memory_ro);
+	frob_text(&mod->init_layout, set_memory_x);
+
 	frob_rodata(&mod->init_layout, set_memory_ro);
 
 	if (after_init)

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