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Date: Sat, 2 Jun 2018 17:41:09 +0000
From: procmem <>
To: Greg KH <>
Subject: Re: Nethammer and kernel network drivers

Hello. Daniel provided more details on the problematic areas of the
kernel and I quote what he said verbatim:

> We have only found very outdated network drivers using clflush (old
> windows ndis code). On ARM there are many drivers using uncached memory.
> However, we have so far failed to produce enough memory traffic on ARM
> to trigger a bit flip with Nethammer on any ARM device.
> It should be possible though if you can make the ARM device handle
>> =300MBit/s.
> And that's the most plausible scenario.
> Anyway, searching for clflush or use of uncached memory is a good idea
> to locate the critical spots.
> Intel CAT is (we believe) not used anywhere yet. And we must be careful
> when it gets to the point where we introduce usage of CAT for QoS
> mechanisms.
> However, my intuition tells me that most systems are not even vulnerable
> to Rowhammer in the first place. Although the only prevalence studies we
> have suggest otherwise (they find 60-80% are affected).

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