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Date: Sun, 8 Apr 2018 14:06:58 -0700
From: Andy Lutomirski <>
To: Mickaël Salaün <>
Cc: Andy Lutomirski <>, Alexei Starovoitov <>, 
	Daniel Borkmann <>, LKML <>, 
	Alexei Starovoitov <>, Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <>, 
	Casey Schaufler <>, David Drysdale <>, 
	"David S . Miller" <>, "Eric W . Biederman" <>, Jann Horn <>, 
	Jonathan Corbet <>, Michael Kerrisk <>, 
	Kees Cook <>, Paul Moore <>, 
	Sargun Dhillon <>, "Serge E . Hallyn" <>, Shuah Khan <>, 
	Tejun Heo <>, Thomas Graf <>, Tycho Andersen <>, 
	Will Drewry <>, Kernel Hardening <>, 
	Linux API <>, 
	LSM List <>, 
	Network Development <>, Andrew Morton <>
Subject: Re: [PATCH bpf-next v8 05/11] seccomp,landlock: Enforce Landlock
 programs per process hierarchy

On Sun, Apr 8, 2018 at 6:13 AM, Mickaël Salaün <> wrote:
> On 02/27/2018 10:48 PM, Mickaël Salaün wrote:
>> On 27/02/2018 17:39, Andy Lutomirski wrote:
>>> On Tue, Feb 27, 2018 at 5:32 AM, Alexei Starovoitov
>>> <> wrote:
>>>> On Tue, Feb 27, 2018 at 05:20:55AM +0000, Andy Lutomirski wrote:
>>>>> On Tue, Feb 27, 2018 at 4:54 AM, Alexei Starovoitov
>>>>> <> wrote:
>>>>>> On Tue, Feb 27, 2018 at 04:40:34AM +0000, Andy Lutomirski wrote:
>>>>>>> On Tue, Feb 27, 2018 at 2:08 AM, Alexei Starovoitov
>>>>>>> <> wrote:
>>>>>>>> On Tue, Feb 27, 2018 at 01:41:15AM +0100, Mickaël Salaün wrote:
>>>>>>>>> The seccomp(2) syscall can be used by a task to apply a Landlock program
>>>>>>>>> to itself. As a seccomp filter, a Landlock program is enforced for the
>>>>>>>>> current task and all its future children. A program is immutable and a
>>>>>>>>> task can only add new restricting programs to itself, forming a list of
>>>>>>>>> programss.
>>>>>>>>> A Landlock program is tied to a Landlock hook. If the action on a kernel
>>>>>>>>> object is allowed by the other Linux security mechanisms (e.g. DAC,
>>>>>>>>> capabilities, other LSM), then a Landlock hook related to this kind of
>>>>>>>>> object is triggered. The list of programs for this hook is then
>>>>>>>>> evaluated. Each program return a 32-bit value which can deny the action
>>>>>>>>> on a kernel object with a non-zero value. If every programs of the list
>>>>>>>>> return zero, then the action on the object is allowed.
>>>>>>>>> Multiple Landlock programs can be chained to share a 64-bits value for a
>>>>>>>>> call chain (e.g. evaluating multiple elements of a file path).  This
>>>>>>>>> chaining is restricted when a process construct this chain by loading a
>>>>>>>>> program, but additional checks are performed when it requests to apply
>>>>>>>>> this chain of programs to itself.  The restrictions ensure that it is
>>>>>>>>> not possible to call multiple programs in a way that would imply to
>>>>>>>>> handle multiple shared values (i.e. cookies) for one chain.  For now,
>>>>>>>>> only a fs_pick program can be chained to the same type of program,
>>>>>>>>> because it may make sense if they have different triggers (cf. next
>>>>>>>>> commits).  This restrictions still allows to reuse Landlock programs in
>>>>>>>>> a safe way (e.g. use the same loaded fs_walk program with multiple
>>>>>>>>> chains of fs_pick programs).
>>>>>>>>> Signed-off-by: Mickaël Salaün <>
>>>>>>>> ...
>>>>>>>>> +struct landlock_prog_set *landlock_prepend_prog(
>>>>>>>>> +             struct landlock_prog_set *current_prog_set,
>>>>>>>>> +             struct bpf_prog *prog)
>>>>>>>>> +{
>>>>>>>>> +     struct landlock_prog_set *new_prog_set = current_prog_set;
>>>>>>>>> +     unsigned long pages;
>>>>>>>>> +     int err;
>>>>>>>>> +     size_t i;
>>>>>>>>> +     struct landlock_prog_set tmp_prog_set = {};
>>>>>>>>> +
>>>>>>>>> +     if (prog->type != BPF_PROG_TYPE_LANDLOCK_HOOK)
>>>>>>>>> +             return ERR_PTR(-EINVAL);
>>>>>>>>> +
>>>>>>>>> +     /* validate memory size allocation */
>>>>>>>>> +     pages = prog->pages;
>>>>>>>>> +     if (current_prog_set) {
>>>>>>>>> +             size_t i;
>>>>>>>>> +
>>>>>>>>> +             for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(current_prog_set->programs); i++) {
>>>>>>>>> +                     struct landlock_prog_list *walker_p;
>>>>>>>>> +
>>>>>>>>> +                     for (walker_p = current_prog_set->programs[i];
>>>>>>>>> +                                     walker_p; walker_p = walker_p->prev)
>>>>>>>>> +                             pages += walker_p->prog->pages;
>>>>>>>>> +             }
>>>>>>>>> +             /* count a struct landlock_prog_set if we need to allocate one */
>>>>>>>>> +             if (refcount_read(&current_prog_set->usage) != 1)
>>>>>>>>> +                     pages += round_up(sizeof(*current_prog_set), PAGE_SIZE)
>>>>>>>>> +                             / PAGE_SIZE;
>>>>>>>>> +     }
>>>>>>>>> +     if (pages > LANDLOCK_PROGRAMS_MAX_PAGES)
>>>>>>>>> +             return ERR_PTR(-E2BIG);
>>>>>>>>> +
>>>>>>>>> +     /* ensure early that we can allocate enough memory for the new
>>>>>>>>> +      * prog_lists */
>>>>>>>>> +     err = store_landlock_prog(&tmp_prog_set, current_prog_set, prog);
>>>>>>>>> +     if (err)
>>>>>>>>> +             return ERR_PTR(err);
>>>>>>>>> +
>>>>>>>>> +     /*
>>>>>>>>> +      * Each task_struct points to an array of prog list pointers.  These
>>>>>>>>> +      * tables are duplicated when additions are made (which means each
>>>>>>>>> +      * table needs to be refcounted for the processes using it). When a new
>>>>>>>>> +      * table is created, all the refcounters on the prog_list are bumped (to
>>>>>>>>> +      * track each table that references the prog). When a new prog is
>>>>>>>>> +      * added, it's just prepended to the list for the new table to point
>>>>>>>>> +      * at.
>>>>>>>>> +      *
>>>>>>>>> +      * Manage all the possible errors before this step to not uselessly
>>>>>>>>> +      * duplicate current_prog_set and avoid a rollback.
>>>>>>>>> +      */
>>>>>>>>> +     if (!new_prog_set) {
>>>>>>>>> +             /*
>>>>>>>>> +              * If there is no Landlock program set used by the current task,
>>>>>>>>> +              * then create a new one.
>>>>>>>>> +              */
>>>>>>>>> +             new_prog_set = new_landlock_prog_set();
>>>>>>>>> +             if (IS_ERR(new_prog_set))
>>>>>>>>> +                     goto put_tmp_lists;
>>>>>>>>> +     } else if (refcount_read(&current_prog_set->usage) > 1) {
>>>>>>>>> +             /*
>>>>>>>>> +              * If the current task is not the sole user of its Landlock
>>>>>>>>> +              * program set, then duplicate them.
>>>>>>>>> +              */
>>>>>>>>> +             new_prog_set = new_landlock_prog_set();
>>>>>>>>> +             if (IS_ERR(new_prog_set))
>>>>>>>>> +                     goto put_tmp_lists;
>>>>>>>>> +             for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(new_prog_set->programs); i++) {
>>>>>>>>> +                     new_prog_set->programs[i] =
>>>>>>>>> +                             READ_ONCE(current_prog_set->programs[i]);
>>>>>>>>> +                     if (new_prog_set->programs[i])
>>>>>>>>> +                             refcount_inc(&new_prog_set->programs[i]->usage);
>>>>>>>>> +             }
>>>>>>>>> +
>>>>>>>>> +             /*
>>>>>>>>> +              * Landlock program set from the current task will not be freed
>>>>>>>>> +              * here because the usage is strictly greater than 1. It is
>>>>>>>>> +              * only prevented to be freed by another task thanks to the
>>>>>>>>> +              * caller of landlock_prepend_prog() which should be locked if
>>>>>>>>> +              * needed.
>>>>>>>>> +              */
>>>>>>>>> +             landlock_put_prog_set(current_prog_set);
>>>>>>>>> +     }
>>>>>>>>> +
>>>>>>>>> +     /* prepend tmp_prog_set to new_prog_set */
>>>>>>>>> +     for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(tmp_prog_set.programs); i++) {
>>>>>>>>> +             /* get the last new list */
>>>>>>>>> +             struct landlock_prog_list *last_list =
>>>>>>>>> +                     tmp_prog_set.programs[i];
>>>>>>>>> +
>>>>>>>>> +             if (last_list) {
>>>>>>>>> +                     while (last_list->prev)
>>>>>>>>> +                             last_list = last_list->prev;
>>>>>>>>> +                     /* no need to increment usage (pointer replacement) */
>>>>>>>>> +                     last_list->prev = new_prog_set->programs[i];
>>>>>>>>> +                     new_prog_set->programs[i] = tmp_prog_set.programs[i];
>>>>>>>>> +             }
>>>>>>>>> +     }
>>>>>>>>> +     new_prog_set->chain_last = tmp_prog_set.chain_last;
>>>>>>>>> +     return new_prog_set;
>>>>>>>>> +
>>>>>>>>> +put_tmp_lists:
>>>>>>>>> +     for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(tmp_prog_set.programs); i++)
>>>>>>>>> +             put_landlock_prog_list(tmp_prog_set.programs[i]);
>>>>>>>>> +     return new_prog_set;
>>>>>>>>> +}
>>>>>>>> Nack on the chaining concept.
>>>>>>>> Please do not reinvent the wheel.
>>>>>>>> There is an existing mechanism for attaching/detaching/quering multiple
>>>>>>>> programs attached to cgroup and tracing hooks that are also
>>>>>>>> efficiently executed via BPF_PROG_RUN_ARRAY.
>>>>>>>> Please use that instead.
>>>>>>> I don't see how that would help.  Suppose you add a filter, then
>>>>>>> fork(), and then the child adds another filter.  Do you want to
>>>>>>> duplicate the entire array?  You certainly can't *modify* the array
>>>>>>> because you'll affect processes that shouldn't be affected.
>>>>>>> In contrast, doing this through seccomp like the earlier patches
>>>>>>> seemed just fine to me, and seccomp already had the right logic.
>>>>>> it doesn't look to me that existing seccomp side of managing fork
>>>>>> situation can be reused. Here there is an attempt to add 'chaining'
>>>>>> concept which sort of an extension of existing seccomp style,
>>>>>> but somehow heavily done on bpf side and contradicts cgroup/tracing.
>>>>> I don't see why the seccomp way can't be used.  I agree with you that
>>>>> the seccomp *style* shouldn't be used in bpf code like this, but I
>>>>> think that Landlock programs can and should just live in the existing
>>>>> seccomp chain.  If the existing seccomp code needs some modification
>>>>> to make this work, then so be it.
>>>> +1
>>>> if that was the case...
>>>> but that's not my reading of the patch set.
>>> An earlier version of the patch set used the seccomp filter chain.
>>> Mickaël, what exactly was wrong with that approach other than that the
>>> seccomp() syscall was awkward for you to use?  You could add a
>>> seccomp_add_landlock_rule() syscall if you needed to.
>> Nothing was wrong about about that, this part did not changed (see my
>> next comment).
>>> As a side comment, why is this an LSM at all, let alone a non-stacking
>>> LSM?  It would make a lot more sense to me to make Landlock depend on
>>> having LSMs configured in but to call the landlock hooks directly from
>>> the security_xyz() hooks.
>> See Casey's answer and his patch series:
>>>>> In other words, the kernel already has two kinds of chaining:
>>>>> seccomp's and bpf's.  bpf's doesn't work right for this type of usage
>>>>> across fork(), whereas seccomp's already handles that case correctly.
>>>>> (In contrast, seccomp's is totally wrong for cgroup-attached filters.)
>>>>>  So IMO Landlock should use the seccomp core code and call into bpf
>>>>> for the actual filtering.
>>>> +1
>>>> in cgroup we had to invent this new BPF_PROG_RUN_ARRAY mechanism,
>>>> since cgroup hierarchy can be complicated with bpf progs attached
>>>> at different levels with different override/multiprog properties,
>>>> so walking link list and checking all flags at run-time would have
>>>> been too slow. That's why we added compute_effective_progs().
>>> If we start adding override flags to Landlock, I think we're doing it
>>> wrong.   With cgroup bpf programs, the whole mess is set up by the
>>> administrator.  With seccomp, and with Landlock if done correctly, it
>>> *won't* be set up by the administrator, so the chance that everyone
>>> gets all the flags right is about zero.  All attached filters should
>>> run unconditionally.
>> There is a misunderstanding about this chaining mechanism. This should
>> not be confused with the list of seccomp filters nor the cgroup
>> hierarchies. Landlock programs can be stacked the same way seccomp's
>> filters can (cf. struct landlock_prog_set, the "chain_last" field is an
>> optimization which is not used for this struct handling). This stackable
>> property did not changed from the previous patch series. The chaining
>> mechanism is for another use case, which does not make sense for seccomp
>> filters nor other eBPF program types, at least for now, from what I can
>> tell.
>> You may want to get a look at my talk at FOSDEM
>> (, especially
>> slides 11 and 12.
>> Let me explain my reasoning about this program chaining thing.
>> To check if an action on a file is allowed, we first need to identify
>> this file and match it to the security policy. In a previous
>> (non-public) patch series, I tried to use one type of eBPF program to
>> check every kind of access to a file. To be able to identify a file, I
>> relied on an eBPF map, similar to the current inode map. This map store
>> a set of references to file descriptors. I then created a function
>> bpf_is_file_beneath() to check if the requested file was beneath a file
>> in the map. This way, no chaining, only one eBPF program type to check
>> an access to a file... but some issues then emerged. First, this design
>> create a side-channel which help an attacker using such a program to
>> infer some information not normally available, for example to get a hint
>> on where a file descriptor (received from a UNIX socket) come from.
>> Another issue is that this type of program would be called for each
>> component of a path. Indeed, when the kernel check if an access to a
>> file is allowed, it walk through all of the directories in its path
>> (checking if the current process is allowed to execute them). That first
>> attempt led me to rethink the way we could filter an access to a file
>> *path*.
>> To minimize the number of called to an eBPF program dedicated to
>> validate an access to a file path, I decided to create three subtype of
>> eBPF programs. The FS_WALK type is called when walking through every
>> directory of a file path (except the last one if it is the target). We
>> can then restrict this type of program to the minimum set of functions
>> it is allowed to call and the minimum set of data available from its
>> context. The first implicit chaining is for this type of program. To be
>> able to evaluate a path while being called for all its components, this
>> program need to store a state (to remember what was the parent directory
>> of this path). There is no "previous" field in the subtype for this
>> program because it is chained with itself, for each directories. This
>> enable to create a FS_WALK program to evaluate a file hierarchy, thank
>> to the inode map which can be used to check if a directory of this
>> hierarchy is part of an allowed (or denied) list of directories. This
>> design enables to express a file hierarchy in a programmatic way,
>> without requiring an eBPF helper to do the job (unlike my first experiment).
>> The explicit chaining is used to tied a path evaluation (with a FS_WALK
>> program) to an access to the actual file being requested (the last
>> component of a file path), with a FS_PICK program. It is only at this
>> time that the kernel check for the requested action (e.g. read, write,
>> chdir, append...). To be able to filter such access request we can have
>> one call to the same program for every action and let this program check
>> for which action it was called. However, this design does not allow the
>> kernel to know if the current action is indeed handled by this program.
>> Hence, it is not possible to implement a cache mechanism to only call
>> this program if it knows how to handle this action.
>> The approach I took for this FS_PICK type of program is to add to its
>> subtype which action it can handle (with the "triggers" bitfield, seen
>> as ORed actions). This way, the kernel knows if a call to a FS_PICK
>> program is necessary. If the user wants to enforce a different security
>> policy according to the action requested on a file, then it needs
>> multiple FS_PICK programs. However, to reduce the number of such
>> programs, this patch series allow a FS_PICK program to be chained with
>> another, the same way a FS_WALK is chained with itself. This way, if the
>> user want to check if the action is a for example an "open" and a "read"
>> and not a "map" and a "read", then it can chain multiple FS_PICK
>> programs with different triggers actions. The OR check performed by the
>> kernel is not a limitation then, only a way to know if a call to an eBPF
>> program is needed.
>> The last type of program is FS_GET. This one is called when a process
>> get a struct file or change its working directory. This is the only
>> program type able (and allowed) to tag a file. This restriction is
>> important to not being subject to resource exhaustion attacks (i.e.
>> tagging every inode accessible to an attacker, which would allocate too
>> much kernel memory).
>> This design gives room for improvements to create a cache of eBPF
>> context (input data, including maps if any), with the result of an eBPF
>> program. This would help limit the number of call to an eBPF program the
>> same way SELinux or other kernel components do to limit costly checks.
>> The eBPF maps of progs are useful to call the same type of eBPF
>> program. It does not fit with this use case because we may want multiple
>> eBPF program according to the action requested on a kernel object (e.g.
>> FS_GET). The other reason is because the eBPF program does not know what
>> will be the next (type of) access check performed by the kernel.
>> To say it another way, this chaining mechanism is a way to split a
>> kernel object evaluation with multiple specialized programs, each of
>> them being able to deal with data tied to their type. Using a monolithic
>> eBPF program to check everything does not scale and does not fit with
>> unprivileged use either.
>> As a side note, the cookie value is only an ephemeral value to keep a
>> state between multiple programs call. It can be used to create a state
>> machine for an object evaluation.
>> I don't see a way to do an efficient and programmatic path evaluation,
>> with different access checks, with the current eBPF features. Please let
>> me know if you know how to do it another way.
> Andy, Alexei, Daniel, what do you think about this Landlock program
> chaining and cookie?

Can you give a small pseudocode real world example that acutally needs
chaining?  The mechanism is quite complicated and I'd like to
understand how it'll be used.

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