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Date: Thu, 11 Jan 2018 16:46:24 -0800
From: Dan Williams <>
Cc: Mark Rutland <>,,
 Peter Zijlstra <>, Alan Cox <>,
 Will Deacon <>, Alexei Starovoitov <>,
 Solomon Peachy <>, "H. Peter Anvin" <>,
 Christian Lamparter <>,
 Elena Reshetova <>,,
 Andi Kleen <>,
 "James E.J. Bottomley" <>,,
 Jonathan Corbet <>,,
 Russell King <>, Ingo Molnar <>,
 Catalin Marinas <>,
 Alexey Kuznetsov <>,,
 Tom Lendacky <>, Kees Cook <>,
 Jan Kara <>, Al Viro <>,,,
 Mauro Carvalho Chehab <>, Kalle Valo <>,, "Martin K. Petersen" <>,
 Hideaki YOSHIFUJI <>,
 Greg KH <>,,
 "Eric W. Biederman" <>,,,,
 "David S. Miller" <>,
 Laurent Pinchart <>
Subject: [PATCH v2 00/19] prevent bounds-check bypass via speculative

Changes since v1 [1]:
* fixup the ifence definition to use alternative_2 per recent AMD
  changes in tip/x86/pti (Tom)

* drop 'nospec_ptr' (Linus, Mark)

* rename 'nospec_array_ptr' to 'array_ptr' (Alexei)

* rename 'nospec_barrier' to 'ifence' (Peter, Ingo)

* clean up occasions of 'variable assignment in if()' (Sergei, Stephen)

* make 'array_ptr' use a mask instead of an architectural ifence by
  default (Linus, Alexei)

* provide a command line and compile-time opt-in to the ifence
  mechanism, if an architecture provides 'ifence_array_ptr'.

* provide an optimized mask generation helper, 'array_ptr_mask', for
  x86 (Linus)

* move 'get_user' hardening from '__range_not_ok' to '__uaccess_begin'

* drop "Thermal/int340x: prevent bounds-check..." since userspace does
  not have arbitrary control over the 'trip' index (Srinivas)

* update the changelog of "net: mpls: prevent bounds-check..." and keep
  it in the series to continue the debate about Spectre hygiene patches.

* record a reviewed-by from Laurent on "[media] uvcvideo: prevent

* update the cover letter



Quoting Mark's original RFC:

"Recently, Google Project Zero discovered several classes of attack
against speculative execution. One of these, known as variant-1, allows
explicit bounds checks to be bypassed under speculation, providing an
arbitrary read gadget. Further details can be found on the GPZ blog [2]
and the Documentation patch in this series."

This series incorporates Mark Rutland's latest ARM changes and adds
the x86 specific implementation of 'ifence_array_ptr'. That ifence
based approach is provided as an opt-in fallback, but the default
mitigation, '__array_ptr', uses a 'mask' approach that removes
conditional branches instructions, and otherwise aims to redirect
speculation to use a NULL pointer rather than a user controlled value.

The mask is generated by the following from Alexei, and Linus:

    mask = ~(long)(_i | (_s - 1 - _i)) >> (BITS_PER_LONG - 1);

...and Linus provided an optimized mask generation helper for x86:

    asm ("cmpq %1,%2; sbbq %0,%0;"
		:"=r" (mask)
		:"r"(sz),"r" (idx)

The 'array_ptr' mechanism can be switched between 'mask' and 'ifence'
via the spectre_v1={mask,ifence} command line option, and the
compile-time default is set by selecting either CONFIG_SPECTRE1_MASK or

The 'array_ptr' infrastructure is the primary focus this patch set. The
individual patches that perform 'array_ptr' conversions are a point in
time (i.e. earlier kernel, early analysis tooling, x86 only etc...)
start at finding some of these gadgets.

Another consideration for reviewing these patches is the 'hygiene'
argument. When a patch refers to hygiene it is concerned with stopping
speculation on an unconstrained or insufficiently constrained pointer
value under userspace control. That by itself is not sufficient for
attack (per current understanding) [3], but it is a necessary
pre-condition.  So 'hygiene' refers to cleaning up those suspect
pointers regardless of whether they are usable as a gadget.

These patches are also be available via the 'nospec-v2' git branch

    git:// nospec-v2

Note that the BPF fix for Spectre variant1 is merged in the bpf.git
tree [4], and is not included in this branch.



Dan Williams (16):
      x86: implement ifence()
      x86: implement ifence_array_ptr() and array_ptr_mask()
      asm-generic/barrier: mask speculative execution flows
      x86: introduce __uaccess_begin_nospec and ASM_IFENCE
      x86: use __uaccess_begin_nospec and ASM_IFENCE in get_user paths
      ipv6: prevent bounds-check bypass via speculative execution
      ipv4: prevent bounds-check bypass via speculative execution
      vfs, fdtable: prevent bounds-check bypass via speculative execution
      userns: prevent bounds-check bypass via speculative execution
      udf: prevent bounds-check bypass via speculative execution
      [media] uvcvideo: prevent bounds-check bypass via speculative execution
      carl9170: prevent bounds-check bypass via speculative execution
      p54: prevent bounds-check bypass via speculative execution
      qla2xxx: prevent bounds-check bypass via speculative execution
      cw1200: prevent bounds-check bypass via speculative execution
      net: mpls: prevent bounds-check bypass via speculative execution

Mark Rutland (3):
      Documentation: document array_ptr
      arm64: implement ifence_array_ptr()
      arm: implement ifence_array_ptr()

 Documentation/speculation.txt            |  142 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 arch/arm/Kconfig                         |    1 
 arch/arm/include/asm/barrier.h           |   24 +++++
 arch/arm64/Kconfig                       |    1 
 arch/arm64/include/asm/barrier.h         |   24 +++++
 arch/x86/Kconfig                         |    3 +
 arch/x86/include/asm/barrier.h           |   46 ++++++++++
 arch/x86/include/asm/msr.h               |    3 -
 arch/x86/include/asm/smap.h              |    4 +
 arch/x86/include/asm/uaccess.h           |   16 +++
 arch/x86/include/asm/uaccess_32.h        |    6 +
 arch/x86/include/asm/uaccess_64.h        |   12 +--
 arch/x86/lib/copy_user_64.S              |    3 +
 arch/x86/lib/usercopy_32.c               |    8 +-
 drivers/media/usb/uvc/uvc_v4l2.c         |    9 +-
 drivers/net/wireless/ath/carl9170/main.c |    7 +
 drivers/net/wireless/intersil/p54/main.c |    9 +-
 drivers/net/wireless/st/cw1200/sta.c     |   11 +-
 drivers/net/wireless/st/cw1200/wsm.h     |    4 -
 drivers/scsi/qla2xxx/qla_mr.c            |   17 ++--
 fs/udf/misc.c                            |   40 +++++---
 include/linux/fdtable.h                  |    7 +
 include/linux/nospec.h                   |   71 +++++++++++++++
 kernel/Kconfig.nospec                    |   31 +++++++
 kernel/Makefile                          |    1 
 kernel/nospec.c                          |   52 +++++++++++
 kernel/user_namespace.c                  |   11 +-
 lib/Kconfig                              |    3 +
 net/ipv4/raw.c                           |   10 +-
 net/ipv6/raw.c                           |   10 +-
 net/mpls/af_mpls.c                       |   12 +--
 31 files changed, 521 insertions(+), 77 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/speculation.txt
 create mode 100644 include/linux/nospec.h
 create mode 100644 kernel/Kconfig.nospec
 create mode 100644 kernel/nospec.c

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