Openwall GNU/*/Linux - a small security-enhanced Linux distro for servers
[<prev] [next>] [<thread-prev] [thread-next>] [day] [month] [year] [list]
Date: Thu, 21 Dec 2017 09:20:38 +0000
From: Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@...aro.org>
To: Jinbum Park <jinb.park7@...il.com>, Dave Martin <Dave.Martin@....com>
Cc: linux-arm-kernel@...ts.infradead.org, linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org, 
	Kernel Hardening <kernel-hardening@...ts.openwall.com>, Russell King <linux@...linux.org.uk>, 
	Will Deacon <will.deacon@....com>, Peter Zijlstra <peterz@...radead.org>, boqun.feng@...il.com, 
	Ingo Molnar <mingo@...nel.org>, Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@....com>, 
	Nicolas Pitre <nicolas.pitre@...aro.org>, mickael.guene@...com, 
	Kees Cook <keescook@...omium.org>, Laura Abbott <labbott@...hat.com>
Subject: Re: [PATCH] arm: kernel: implement fast refcount checking

(add Dave)

On 21 December 2017 at 09:18, Ard Biesheuvel <ard.biesheuvel@...aro.org> wrote:
> On 21 December 2017 at 07:50, Jinbum Park <jinb.park7@...il.com> wrote:
>> This adds support to arm for fast refcount checking.
>> It's heavily based on x86, arm64 implementation.
>> (7a46ec0e2f48 ("locking/refcounts,
>> x86/asm: Implement fast refcount overflow protection)
>>
>> This doesn't support under-ARMv6, thumb2-kernel yet.
>>
>> Test result of this patch is as follows.
>>
>> 1. LKDTM test
>>
>> - All REFCOUNT_* tests in LKDTM have passed.
>>
>> 2. Performance test
>>
>> - Cortex-A7, Quad Core, 450 MHz
>> - Case with CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_REFCOUNT,
>>
>> perf stat -B -- echo ATOMIC_TIMING \
>>                 >/sys/kernel/debug/provoke-crash/DIRECT
>> 204.364247057 seconds time elapsed
>>
>> perf stat -B -- echo REFCOUNT_TIMING \
>>                 >/sys/kernel/debug/provoke-crash/DIRECT
>> 208.006062212 seconds time elapsed
>>
>> - Case with CONFIG_REFCOUNT_FULL,
>>
>> perf stat -B -- echo REFCOUNT_TIMING \
>>                 >/sys/kernel/debug/provoke-crash/DIRECT
>> 369.256523453 seconds time elapsed
>>
>
> This is a nice result. However, without any insight into the presence
> of actual refcount hot spots, it is not obvious that we need this
> patch. This is the reason we ended up enabling CONFIG_REFCOUNT_FULL
> for arm64. I will let others comment on whether we want this patch in
> the first place, and I will give some feedback on the implementation
> below.
>
>> Signed-off-by: Jinbum Park <jinb.park7@...il.com>
>> ---
>>  arch/arm/Kconfig                |  1 +
>>  arch/arm/include/asm/atomic.h   | 82 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>>  arch/arm/include/asm/refcount.h | 55 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>>  arch/arm/kernel/traps.c         | 44 ++++++++++++++++++++++
>>  4 files changed, 182 insertions(+)
>>  create mode 100644 arch/arm/include/asm/refcount.h
>>
>> diff --git a/arch/arm/Kconfig b/arch/arm/Kconfig
>> index 3ea00d6..e07b986 100644
>> --- a/arch/arm/Kconfig
>> +++ b/arch/arm/Kconfig
>> @@ -7,6 +7,7 @@ config ARM
>>         select ARCH_HAS_DEBUG_VIRTUAL
>>         select ARCH_HAS_DEVMEM_IS_ALLOWED
>>         select ARCH_HAS_ELF_RANDOMIZE
>> +       select ARCH_HAS_REFCOUNT if __LINUX_ARM_ARCH__ >= 6 && (!THUMB2_KERNEL)
>>         select ARCH_HAS_SET_MEMORY
>>         select ARCH_HAS_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX if MMU && !XIP_KERNEL
>>         select ARCH_HAS_STRICT_MODULE_RWX if MMU
>> diff --git a/arch/arm/include/asm/atomic.h b/arch/arm/include/asm/atomic.h
>> index 66d0e21..b203396 100644
>> --- a/arch/arm/include/asm/atomic.h
>> +++ b/arch/arm/include/asm/atomic.h
>> @@ -17,6 +17,7 @@
>>  #include <linux/irqflags.h>
>>  #include <asm/barrier.h>
>>  #include <asm/cmpxchg.h>
>> +#include <asm/opcodes.h>
>>
>>  #define ATOMIC_INIT(i) { (i) }
>>
>> @@ -32,6 +33,87 @@
>>
>>  #if __LINUX_ARM_ARCH__ >= 6
>>
>> +#ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_REFCOUNT
>> +
>> +#define REFCOUNT_ARM_BKPT_INSTR 0xfff001fc
>> +
>> +/*
>> + * 1) encode call site that detect overflow in dummy b instruction.
>> + * 2) overflow handler can decode dummy b, and get call site.
>> + * 3) "(call site + 4) == strex" is always true.
>> + * 4) the handler can get counter address via decoding strex.
>> + */
>> +#define REFCOUNT_TRIGGER_BKPT \
>> +       __inst_arm(REFCOUNT_ARM_BKPT_INSTR) \
>> +"      b       22b\n"
>
> In my arm64 implementation, I used a cbz instruction so I could encode
> both a register number and a relative offset easily. In your case, you
> only need to encode the offset, so it is much better to use '.long 22b
> - .' instead.
>
>> +
>> +/* If bkpt is triggered, skip strex routines after handling overflow */
>> +#define REFCOUNT_CHECK_TAIL \
>> +"      strex   %1, %0, [%3]\n" \
>> +"      teq     %1, #0\n" \
>> +"      bne     1b\n" \
>> +"      .subsection     1\n" \
>> +"33:\n" \
>> +       REFCOUNT_TRIGGER_BKPT \
>> +"      .previous\n"
>> +
>> +#define REFCOUNT_POST_CHECK_NEG \
>> +"22:   bmi       33f\n" \
>
> It may be better to put the label on the 'strex' instruction directly,
> to make things less confusing.
>
>> +       REFCOUNT_CHECK_TAIL
>> +
>> +#define REFCOUNT_POST_CHECK_NEG_OR_ZERO \
>> +"      beq     33f\n" \
>> +       REFCOUNT_POST_CHECK_NEG
>> +
>> +#define REFCOUNT_SMP_MB smp_mb()
>> +#define REFCOUNT_SMP_NONE_MB
>> +
>> +#define REFCOUNT_OP(op, c_op, asm_op, post, mb) \
>> +static inline int __refcount_##op(int i, atomic_t *v) \
>> +{ \
>> +       unsigned long tmp; \
>> +       int result; \
>> +\
>> +       REFCOUNT_SMP_ ## mb; \
>> +       prefetchw(&v->counter); \
>> +       __asm__ __volatile__("@ __refcount_" #op "\n" \
>> +"1:    ldrex   %0, [%3]\n" \
>> +"      " #asm_op "     %0, %0, %4\n" \
>> +       REFCOUNT_POST_CHECK_ ## post \
>> +       : "=&r" (result), "=&r" (tmp), "+Qo" (v->counter) \
>> +       : "r" (&v->counter), "Ir" (i) \
>> +       : "cc"); \
>> +\
>> +       REFCOUNT_SMP_ ## mb; \
>> +       return result; \
>> +} \
>> +
>> +REFCOUNT_OP(add_lt, +=, adds, NEG_OR_ZERO, NONE_MB);
>> +REFCOUNT_OP(sub_lt, -=, subs, NEG, MB);
>> +REFCOUNT_OP(sub_le, -=, subs, NEG_OR_ZERO, NONE_MB);
>> +
>> +static inline int __refcount_add_not_zero(int i, atomic_t *v)
>> +{
>> +       unsigned long tmp;
>> +       int result;
>> +
>> +       prefetchw(&v->counter);
>> +       __asm__ __volatile__("@ __refcount_add_not_zero\n"
>> +"1:    ldrex   %0, [%3]\n"
>> +"      teq             %0, #0\n"
>> +"      beq             2f\n"
>> +"      adds    %0, %0, %4\n"
>> +       REFCOUNT_POST_CHECK_NEG
>> +"2:"
>> +       : "=&r" (result), "=&r" (tmp), "+Qo" (v->counter)
>> +       : "r" (&v->counter), "Ir" (i)
>> +       : "cc");
>> +
>> +       return result;
>> +}
>> +
>> +#endif /* CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_REFCOUNT */
>> +
>>  /*
>>   * ARMv6 UP and SMP safe atomic ops.  We use load exclusive and
>>   * store exclusive to ensure that these are atomic.  We may loop
>> diff --git a/arch/arm/include/asm/refcount.h b/arch/arm/include/asm/refcount.h
>> new file mode 100644
>> index 0000000..300a2d5
>> --- /dev/null
>> +++ b/arch/arm/include/asm/refcount.h
>> @@ -0,0 +1,55 @@
>> +/*
>> + * arm-specific implementation of refcount_t. Based on x86 version and
>> + * PAX_REFCOUNT from PaX/grsecurity.
>> + *
>> + * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
>> + * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
>> + * published by the Free Software Foundation.
>> + */
>> +
>> +#ifndef __ASM_REFCOUNT_H
>> +#define __ASM_REFCOUNT_H
>> +
>> +#include <linux/refcount.h>
>> +
>> +#include <asm/atomic.h>
>> +#include <asm/uaccess.h>
>> +
>> +static __always_inline void refcount_add(int i, refcount_t *r)
>> +{
>> +       __refcount_add_lt(i, &r->refs);
>> +}
>> +
>> +static __always_inline void refcount_inc(refcount_t *r)
>> +{
>> +       __refcount_add_lt(1, &r->refs);
>> +}
>> +
>> +static __always_inline void refcount_dec(refcount_t *r)
>> +{
>> +       __refcount_sub_le(1, &r->refs);
>> +}
>> +
>> +static __always_inline __must_check bool refcount_sub_and_test(unsigned int i,
>> +                                                               refcount_t *r)
>> +{
>> +       return __refcount_sub_lt(i, &r->refs) == 0;
>> +}
>> +
>> +static __always_inline __must_check bool refcount_dec_and_test(refcount_t *r)
>> +{
>> +       return __refcount_sub_lt(1, &r->refs) == 0;
>> +}
>> +
>> +static __always_inline __must_check bool refcount_add_not_zero(unsigned int i,
>> +                                                               refcount_t *r)
>> +{
>> +       return __refcount_add_not_zero(i, &r->refs) != 0;
>> +}
>> +
>> +static __always_inline __must_check bool refcount_inc_not_zero(refcount_t *r)
>> +{
>> +       return __refcount_add_not_zero(1, &r->refs) != 0;
>> +}
>> +
>> +#endif
>> diff --git a/arch/arm/kernel/traps.c b/arch/arm/kernel/traps.c
>> index 5cf0488..a309215 100644
>> --- a/arch/arm/kernel/traps.c
>> +++ b/arch/arm/kernel/traps.c
>> @@ -795,8 +795,52 @@ void abort(void)
>>  }
>>  EXPORT_SYMBOL(abort);
>>
>> +#ifdef CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_REFCOUNT
>> +
>> +static int refcount_overflow_handler(struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned int instr)
>> +{
>> +       u32 dummy_b = le32_to_cpup((__le32 *)(regs->ARM_pc + 4));
>> +       u32 strex;
>> +       u32 rt;
>> +       bool zero = regs->ARM_cpsr & PSR_Z_BIT;
>> +
>> +       /* point pc to the branch instruction that detected the overflow */
>> +       regs->ARM_pc += 4 + (((s32)dummy_b << 8) >> 6) + 8;
>> +
>
> This would become something like
>
> s32 offset = *(s32 *)(regs->ARM_pc + 4);
>
> /* point pc to the strex instruction that will overflow the refcount */
> regs->ARM_pc += offset + 4;
>
>
>> +       /* decode strex to set refcount */
>> +       strex = le32_to_cpup((__le32 *)(regs->ARM_pc + 4));
>> +       rt = (strex << 12) >> 28;
>> +
>
> Don't we have better ways to decode an instruction? Also, could you
> add a Thumb2 variant here? (and for the breakpoint instruction)
>
>
>> +       /* unconditionally saturate the refcount */
>> +       *(int *)regs->uregs[rt] = INT_MIN / 2;
>> +
>> +       /* report error */
>> +       refcount_error_report(regs, zero ? "hit zero" : "overflow");
>> +
>> +       /* advance pc and proceed, skip "strex" routine */
>> +       regs->ARM_pc += 16;
>
> Please use a macro here to clarify that you are skipping the remaining
> instructions in REFCOUNT_CHECK_TAIL
>
>> +       return 0;
>> +}
>> +
>> +static struct undef_hook refcount_break_hook = {
>> +       .instr_mask     = 0xffffffff,
>> +       .instr_val      = REFCOUNT_ARM_BKPT_INSTR,
>> +       .cpsr_mask      = 0,
>> +       .cpsr_val       = 0,
>> +       .fn             = refcount_overflow_handler,
>> +};
>> +
>> +#define register_refcount_break_hook() register_undef_hook(&refcount_break_hook)
>> +
>> +#else /* !CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_REFCOUNT */
>> +
>> +#define register_refcount_break_hook()
>> +
>> +#endif /* CONFIG_ARCH_HAS_REFCOUNT */
>> +
>>  void __init trap_init(void)
>>  {
>> +       register_refcount_break_hook();
>>         return;
>>  }
>>
>> --
>> 1.9.1
>>

Powered by blists - more mailing lists

Your e-mail address:

Confused about mailing lists and their use? Read about mailing lists on Wikipedia and check out these guidelines on proper formatting of your messages.