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Date: Thu, 26 Oct 2017 13:53:56 +1100
From: "Tobin C. Harding" <me@...in.cc>
To: kernel-hardening@...ts.openwall.com
Cc: "Tobin C. Harding" <me@...in.cc>,
	"Jason A. Donenfeld" <Jason@...c4.com>,
	Theodore Ts'o <tytso@....edu>,
	Linus Torvalds <torvalds@...ux-foundation.org>,
	Kees Cook <keescook@...omium.org>,
	Paolo Bonzini <pbonzini@...hat.com>,
	Tycho Andersen <tycho@...ker.com>,
	"Roberts, William C" <william.c.roberts@...el.com>,
	Tejun Heo <tj@...nel.org>,
	Jordan Glover <Golden_Miller83@...tonmail.ch>,
	Greg KH <gregkh@...uxfoundation.org>,
	Petr Mladek <pmladek@...e.com>,
	Joe Perches <joe@...ches.com>,
	Ian Campbell <ijc@...lion.org.uk>,
	Sergey Senozhatsky <sergey.senozhatsky@...il.com>,
	Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@....com>,
	Will Deacon <wilal.deacon@....com>,
	Steven Rostedt <rostedt@...dmis.org>,
	Chris Fries <cfries@...gle.com>,
	Dave Weinstein <olorin@...gle.com>,
	Daniel Micay <danielmicay@...il.com>,
	Djalal Harouni <tixxdz@...il.com>,
	linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org
Subject: [PATCH V8 2/2] printk: hash addresses printed with %p

Currently there are many places in the kernel where addresses are being
printed using an unadorned %p. Kernel pointers should be printed using
%pK allowing some control via the kptr_restrict sysctl. Exposing addresses
gives attackers sensitive information about the kernel layout in memory.

We can reduce the attack surface by hashing all addresses printed with
%p. This will of course break some users, forcing code printing needed
addresses to be updated.

For what it's worth, usage of unadorned %p can be broken down as
follows (thanks to Joe Perches).

$ git grep -E '%p[^A-Za-z0-9]' | cut -f1 -d"/" | sort | uniq -c
   1084 arch
     20 block
     10 crypto
     32 Documentation
   8121 drivers
   1221 fs
    143 include
    101 kernel
     69 lib
    100 mm
   1510 net
     40 samples
      7 scripts
     11 security
    166 sound
    152 tools
      2 virt

Add function ptr_to_id() to map an address to a 32 bit unique identifier.

Signed-off-by: Tobin C. Harding <me@...in.cc>
---
 lib/vsprintf.c | 157 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------------------
 1 file changed, 107 insertions(+), 50 deletions(-)

diff --git a/lib/vsprintf.c b/lib/vsprintf.c
index 16a587aed40e..8f4aebd10c7e 100644
--- a/lib/vsprintf.c
+++ b/lib/vsprintf.c
@@ -33,6 +33,8 @@
 #include <linux/uuid.h>
 #include <linux/of.h>
 #include <net/addrconf.h>
+#include <linux/siphash.h>
+#include <linux/compiler.h>
 #ifdef CONFIG_BLOCK
 #include <linux/blkdev.h>
 #endif
@@ -1344,6 +1346,57 @@ char *uuid_string(char *buf, char *end, const u8 *addr,
 }
 
 static noinline_for_stack
+char *kernel_pointer(char *buf, char *end, const void *ptr,
+		     struct printf_spec spec)
+{
+	spec.base = 16;
+	spec.flags |= SMALL;
+	if (spec.field_width == -1) {
+		spec.field_width = 2 * sizeof(void *);
+		spec.flags |= ZEROPAD;
+	}
+
+	switch (kptr_restrict) {
+	case 0:
+		/* Always print %pK values */
+		break;
+	case 1: {
+		const struct cred *cred;
+
+		/*
+		 * kptr_restrict==1 cannot be used in IRQ context
+		 * because its test for CAP_SYSLOG would be meaningless.
+		 */
+		if (in_irq() || in_serving_softirq() || in_nmi())
+			return string(buf, end, "pK-error", spec);
+
+		/*
+		 * Only print the real pointer value if the current
+		 * process has CAP_SYSLOG and is running with the
+		 * same credentials it started with. This is because
+		 * access to files is checked at open() time, but %pK
+		 * checks permission at read() time. We don't want to
+		 * leak pointer values if a binary opens a file using
+		 * %pK and then elevates privileges before reading it.
+		 */
+		cred = current_cred();
+		if (!has_capability_noaudit(current, CAP_SYSLOG) ||
+		    !uid_eq(cred->euid, cred->uid) ||
+		    !gid_eq(cred->egid, cred->gid))
+			ptr = NULL;
+		break;
+	}
+	case 2:
+	default:
+		/* Always print 0's for %pK */
+		ptr = NULL;
+		break;
+	}
+
+	return number(buf, end, (unsigned long)ptr, spec);
+}
+
+static noinline_for_stack
 char *netdev_bits(char *buf, char *end, const void *addr, const char *fmt)
 {
 	unsigned long long num;
@@ -1591,6 +1644,54 @@ char *device_node_string(char *buf, char *end, struct device_node *dn,
 	return widen_string(buf, buf - buf_start, end, spec);
 }
 
+static bool have_filled_random_ptr_key;
+static siphash_key_t ptr_key __read_mostly;
+
+static void fill_random_ptr_key(struct random_ready_callback *unused)
+{
+	get_random_bytes(&ptr_key, sizeof(ptr_key));
+	WRITE_ONCE(have_filled_random_ptr_key, true);
+}
+
+static struct random_ready_callback random_ready = {
+	.func = fill_random_ptr_key
+};
+
+static int __init initialize_ptr_random(void)
+{
+	int ret = add_random_ready_callback(&random_ready);
+
+	if (!ret)
+		return 0;
+	else if (ret == -EALREADY) {
+		fill_random_ptr_key(&random_ready);
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	return ret;
+}
+early_initcall(initialize_ptr_random);
+
+/* Maps a pointer to a 32 bit unique identifier. */
+static char *ptr_to_id(char *buf, char *end, void *ptr, struct printf_spec spec)
+{
+	unsigned int hashval;
+	int size = sizeof(hashval);
+
+	if (unlikely(!have_filled_random_ptr_key)) {
+		spec.field_width = 2 + 2 * size; /* 0x + hex */
+		return string(buf, end, "(pointer)", spec);
+	}
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_64BIT
+	hashval = (unsigned int)siphash_1u64((u64)ptr, &ptr_key);
+#else
+	hashval = (unsigned int)siphash_1u32((u32)ptr, &ptr_key);
+#endif
+
+	return special_hex_number(buf, end, hashval, size);
+}
+
 int kptr_restrict __read_mostly;
 
 /*
@@ -1703,13 +1804,14 @@ int kptr_restrict __read_mostly;
  * Note: The difference between 'S' and 'F' is that on ia64 and ppc64
  * function pointers are really function descriptors, which contain a
  * pointer to the real address.
+ *
+ * Note: The default behaviour (unadorned %p) is to hash the address,
+ * rendering it useful as a unique identifier.
  */
 static noinline_for_stack
 char *pointer(const char *fmt, char *buf, char *end, void *ptr,
 	      struct printf_spec spec)
 {
-	const int default_width = 2 * sizeof(void *);
-
 	if (!ptr && *fmt != 'K')
 		return string(buf, end, "(null)", spec);
 
@@ -1785,47 +1887,7 @@ char *pointer(const char *fmt, char *buf, char *end, void *ptr,
 			return buf;
 		}
 	case 'K':
-		switch (kptr_restrict) {
-		case 0:
-			/* Always print %pK values */
-			break;
-		case 1: {
-			const struct cred *cred;
-
-			/*
-			 * kptr_restrict==1 cannot be used in IRQ context
-			 * because its test for CAP_SYSLOG would be meaningless.
-			 */
-			if (in_irq() || in_serving_softirq() || in_nmi()) {
-				if (spec.field_width == -1)
-					spec.field_width = default_width;
-				return string(buf, end, "pK-error", spec);
-			}
-
-			/*
-			 * Only print the real pointer value if the current
-			 * process has CAP_SYSLOG and is running with the
-			 * same credentials it started with. This is because
-			 * access to files is checked at open() time, but %pK
-			 * checks permission at read() time. We don't want to
-			 * leak pointer values if a binary opens a file using
-			 * %pK and then elevates privileges before reading it.
-			 */
-			cred = current_cred();
-			if (!has_capability_noaudit(current, CAP_SYSLOG) ||
-			    !uid_eq(cred->euid, cred->uid) ||
-			    !gid_eq(cred->egid, cred->gid))
-				ptr = NULL;
-			break;
-		}
-		case 2:
-		default:
-			/* Always print 0's for %pK */
-			ptr = NULL;
-			break;
-		}
-		break;
-
+		return kernel_pointer(buf, end, ptr, spec);
 	case 'N':
 		return netdev_bits(buf, end, ptr, fmt);
 	case 'a':
@@ -1851,14 +1913,9 @@ char *pointer(const char *fmt, char *buf, char *end, void *ptr,
 			return device_node_string(buf, end, ptr, spec, fmt + 1);
 		}
 	}
-	spec.flags |= SMALL;
-	if (spec.field_width == -1) {
-		spec.field_width = default_width;
-		spec.flags |= ZEROPAD;
-	}
-	spec.base = 16;
 
-	return number(buf, end, (unsigned long) ptr, spec);
+	/* default is to _not_ leak addresses, hash before printing */
+	return ptr_to_id(buf, end, ptr, spec);
 }
 
 /*
-- 
2.7.4

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