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Date: Thu, 4 May 2017 16:48:51 +0100
From: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@....com>
To: Daniel Micay <danielmicay@...il.com>
Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@...omium.org>, kernel-hardening@...ts.openwall.com,
	ard.biesheuvel@...aro.org, matt@...eblueprint.co.uk
Subject: Re: [PATCH] add the option of fortified string.h
 functions

Hi,

On Thu, May 04, 2017 at 10:24:35AM -0400, Daniel Micay wrote:
> This adds support for compiling with a rough equivalent to the glibc
> _FORTIFY_SOURCE=1 feature, providing compile-time and runtime buffer
> overflow checks for string.h functions when the compiler determines the
> size of the source or destination buffer at compile-time. Unlike glibc,
> it covers buffer reads in addition to writes.
> 
> GNU C __builtin_*_chk intrinsics are avoided because they're only
> designed to detect write overflows and are overly complex. A single
> inline branch works for everything but strncat while those intrinsics
> would force the creation of a bunch of extra non-inline wrappers that
> aren't able to receive the detected source buffer size.
> 
> This detects various undefined uses of memcpy, etc. at compile-time
> outside of non-core kernel code, and in the arm64 vdso code, so there
> will need to be a series of fixes applied (mainly memcpy -> strncpy for
> copying string constants to avoid copying past the end of the source).

>From a glance, in the arm64 vdso case, that's due to the definition of
vdso_start as a char giving it a single byte size.

We can/should probably use char[] for vdso_{start,end} on arm/arm64 as
we do for other linker symbols (and x86 and tile do for
vdso_{start,end}), i.e.

---->8----
diff --git a/arch/arm64/kernel/vdso.c b/arch/arm64/kernel/vdso.c
index 41b6e31..ae35f18 100644
--- a/arch/arm64/kernel/vdso.c
+++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/vdso.c
@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@
 #include <asm/vdso.h>
 #include <asm/vdso_datapage.h>
 
-extern char vdso_start, vdso_end;
+extern char vdso_start[], vdso_end[];
 static unsigned long vdso_pages __ro_after_init;
 
 /*
@@ -125,14 +125,14 @@ static int __init vdso_init(void)
        struct page **vdso_pagelist;
        unsigned long pfn;
 
-       if (memcmp(&vdso_start, "\177ELF", 4)) {
+       if (memcmp(vdso_start, "\177ELF", 4)) {
                pr_err("vDSO is not a valid ELF object!\n");
                return -EINVAL;
        }
 
-       vdso_pages = (&vdso_end - &vdso_start) >> PAGE_SHIFT;
+       vdso_pages = (vdso_end - vdso_start) >> PAGE_SHIFT;
        pr_info("vdso: %ld pages (%ld code @ %p, %ld data @ %p)\n",
-               vdso_pages + 1, vdso_pages, &vdso_start, 1L, vdso_data);
+               vdso_pages + 1, vdso_pages, vdso_start, 1L, vdso_data);
 
        /* Allocate the vDSO pagelist, plus a page for the data. */
        vdso_pagelist = kcalloc(vdso_pages + 1, sizeof(struct page *),
@@ -145,7 +145,7 @@ static int __init vdso_init(void)
 
 
        /* Grab the vDSO code pages. */
-       pfn = sym_to_pfn(&vdso_start);
+       pfn = sym_to_pfn(vdso_start);
 
        for (i = 0; i < vdso_pages; i++)
                vdso_pagelist[i + 1] = pfn_to_page(pfn + i);
---->8----

With that fixed, I see we also need a fortify_panic() for the EFI stub.

I'm not sure if the x86 EFI stub gets linked with the
boot/compressed/misc.c version below, and/or whether it's safe for the
EFI stub to call that.

... with an EFI stub fortify_panic() hacked in, I can build an arm64 kernel
with this applied. It dies at some point after exiting EFI boot services; i
don't know whether it made it out of the stub and into the kernel proper.

> It isn't particularly bad, but there are likely some issues that occur
> during regular use at runtime (none found so far).

It might be worth seeing if anyone can throw syzkaller and friends at
this.

Thanks,
Mark.

> Future improvements left out of initial implementation for simplicity,
> as it's all quite optional and can be done incrementally:
> 
> The fortified string functions should place a limit on reads from the
> source. For strcat/strcpy, these could just be a variant of strlcat /
> strlcpy using the size limit as a bound on both the source and
> destination, with the return value only reporting whether truncation
> occurred rather than providing the source length. It would be an easier
> API for developers to use too and not that it really matters but it
> would be more efficient for the case where truncation is intended.
> 
> It should be possible to optionally use __builtin_object_size(x, 1) for
> some functions (C strings) to detect intra-object overflows (like
> glibc's _FORTIFY_SOURCE=2), but for now this takes the conservative
> approach to avoid likely compatibility issues.
> 
> The error reporting could be made friendlier by splitting up the
> compile-time error for reads and writes. The runtime error could also
> directly report the buffer and copy sizes.
> 
> It may make sense to have the compile-time checks in a separate
> configuration option since they wouldn't have a runtime performance cost
> if there was an ifdef for the runtime check. However, the runtime cost
> of these checks is already quite low (much lower than SSP) and as long
> as some people are using it with allyesconfig, the issues will be found
> for any in-tree code.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Daniel Micay <danielmicay@...il.com>
> ---
>  arch/x86/boot/compressed/misc.c |   5 ++
>  include/linux/string.h          | 161 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  lib/string.c                    |   8 ++
>  security/Kconfig                |   6 ++
>  4 files changed, 180 insertions(+)
> 
> diff --git a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/misc.c b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/misc.c
> index b3c5a5f030ce..43691238a21d 100644
> --- a/arch/x86/boot/compressed/misc.c
> +++ b/arch/x86/boot/compressed/misc.c
> @@ -409,3 +409,8 @@ asmlinkage __visible void *extract_kernel(void *rmode, memptr heap,
>  	debug_putstr("done.\nBooting the kernel.\n");
>  	return output;
>  }
> +
> +void fortify_panic(const char *name)
> +{
> +	error("detected buffer overflow");
> +}
> diff --git a/include/linux/string.h b/include/linux/string.h
> index 26b6f6a66f83..3bd429c9593a 100644
> --- a/include/linux/string.h
> +++ b/include/linux/string.h
> @@ -169,4 +169,165 @@ static inline const char *kbasename(const char *path)
>  	return tail ? tail + 1 : path;
>  }
>  
> +#define __FORTIFY_INLINE extern __always_inline __attribute__((gnu_inline))
> +#define __RENAME(x) __asm__(#x)
> +
> +void fortify_panic(const char *name) __noreturn __cold;
> +void __buffer_overflow(void) __compiletime_error("buffer overflow");
> +
> +#if !defined(__NO_FORTIFY) && defined(__OPTIMIZE__) && defined(CONFIG_FORTIFY_SOURCE)
> +__FORTIFY_INLINE char *strcpy(char *p, const char *q)
> +{
> +	size_t p_size = __builtin_object_size(p, 0);
> +	if (p_size == (size_t)-1)
> +		return __builtin_strcpy(p, q);
> +	if (strlcpy(p, q, p_size) >= p_size)
> +		fortify_panic(__func__);
> +	return p;
> +}
> +
> +__FORTIFY_INLINE char *strncpy(char *p, const char *q, __kernel_size_t size)
> +{
> +	size_t p_size = __builtin_object_size(p, 0);
> +	if (__builtin_constant_p(size) && p_size < size)
> +		__buffer_overflow();
> +	if (p_size < size)
> +		fortify_panic(__func__);
> +	return __builtin_strncpy(p, q, size);
> +}
> +
> +__FORTIFY_INLINE char *strcat(char *p, const char *q)
> +{
> +	size_t p_size = __builtin_object_size(p, 0);
> +	if (p_size == (size_t)-1)
> +		return __builtin_strcat(p, q);
> +	if (strlcat(p, q, p_size) >= p_size)
> +		fortify_panic(__func__);
> +	return p;
> +}
> +
> +__FORTIFY_INLINE char *strncat(char *p, const char *q, __kernel_size_t count)
> +{
> +	size_t p_len, copy_len;
> +	size_t p_size = __builtin_object_size(p, 0);
> +	if (p_size == (size_t)-1)
> +		return __builtin_strncat(p, q, count);
> +	p_len = __builtin_strlen(p);
> +	copy_len = strnlen(q, count);
> +	if (p_size < p_len + copy_len + 1)
> +		fortify_panic(__func__);
> +	__builtin_memcpy(p + p_len, q, copy_len);
> +	p[p_len + copy_len] = '\0';
> +	return p;
> +}
> +
> +__FORTIFY_INLINE __kernel_size_t strlen(const char *p)
> +{
> +	__kernel_size_t ret;
> +	size_t p_size = __builtin_object_size(p, 0);
> +	if (p_size == (size_t)-1)
> +		return __builtin_strlen(p);
> +	ret = strnlen(p, p_size);
> +	if (p_size <= ret)
> +		fortify_panic(__func__);
> +	return ret;
> +}
> +
> +extern __kernel_size_t __real_strnlen(const char *, __kernel_size_t) __RENAME(strnlen);
> +__FORTIFY_INLINE __kernel_size_t strnlen(const char *p, __kernel_size_t maxlen)
> +{
> +	size_t p_size = __builtin_object_size(p, 0);
> +	__kernel_size_t ret = __real_strnlen(p, maxlen < p_size ? maxlen : p_size);
> +	if (p_size <= ret)
> +		fortify_panic(__func__);
> +	return ret;
> +}
> +
> +__FORTIFY_INLINE void *memset(void *p, int c, __kernel_size_t size)
> +{
> +	size_t p_size = __builtin_object_size(p, 0);
> +	if (__builtin_constant_p(size) && p_size < size)
> +		__buffer_overflow();
> +	if (p_size < size)
> +		fortify_panic(__func__);
> +	return __builtin_memset(p, c, size);
> +}
> +
> +__FORTIFY_INLINE void *memcpy(void *p, const void *q, __kernel_size_t size)
> +{
> +	size_t p_size = __builtin_object_size(p, 0);
> +	size_t q_size = __builtin_object_size(q, 0);
> +	if (__builtin_constant_p(size) && (p_size < size || q_size < size))
> +		__buffer_overflow();
> +	if (p_size < size || q_size < size)
> +		fortify_panic(__func__);
> +	return __builtin_memcpy(p, q, size);
> +}
> +
> +__FORTIFY_INLINE void *memmove(void *p, const void *q, __kernel_size_t size)
> +{
> +	size_t p_size = __builtin_object_size(p, 0);
> +	size_t q_size = __builtin_object_size(q, 0);
> +	if (__builtin_constant_p(size) && (p_size < size || q_size < size))
> +		__buffer_overflow();
> +	if (p_size < size || q_size < size)
> +		fortify_panic(__func__);
> +	return __builtin_memmove(p, q, size);
> +}
> +
> +extern void *__real_memscan(void *, int, __kernel_size_t) __RENAME(memscan);
> +__FORTIFY_INLINE void *memscan(void *p, int c, __kernel_size_t size)
> +{
> +	size_t p_size = __builtin_object_size(p, 0);
> +	if (__builtin_constant_p(size) && p_size < size)
> +		__buffer_overflow();
> +	if (p_size < size)
> +		fortify_panic(__func__);
> +	return __real_memscan(p, c, size);
> +}
> +
> +__FORTIFY_INLINE int memcmp(const void *p, const void *q, __kernel_size_t size)
> +{
> +	size_t p_size = __builtin_object_size(p, 0);
> +	size_t q_size = __builtin_object_size(q, 0);
> +	if (__builtin_constant_p(size) && (p_size < size || q_size < size))
> +		__buffer_overflow();
> +	if (p_size < size || q_size < size)
> +		fortify_panic(__func__);
> +	return __builtin_memcmp(p, q, size);
> +}
> +
> +__FORTIFY_INLINE void *memchr(const void *p, int c, __kernel_size_t size)
> +{
> +	size_t p_size = __builtin_object_size(p, 0);
> +	if (__builtin_constant_p(size) && p_size < size)
> +		__buffer_overflow();
> +	if (p_size < size)
> +		fortify_panic(__func__);
> +	return __builtin_memchr(p, c, size);
> +}
> +
> +void *__real_memchr_inv(const void *s, int c, size_t n) __RENAME(memchr_inv);
> +__FORTIFY_INLINE void *memchr_inv(const void *p, int c, size_t size)
> +{
> +	size_t p_size = __builtin_object_size(p, 0);
> +	if (__builtin_constant_p(size) && p_size < size)
> +		__buffer_overflow();
> +	if (p_size < size)
> +		fortify_panic(__func__);
> +	return __real_memchr_inv(p, c, size);
> +}
> +
> +extern void *__real_kmemdup(const void *src, size_t len, gfp_t gfp) __RENAME(kmemdup);
> +__FORTIFY_INLINE void *kmemdup(const void *p, size_t size, gfp_t gfp)
> +{
> +	size_t p_size = __builtin_object_size(p, 0);
> +	if (__builtin_constant_p(size) && p_size < size)
> +		__buffer_overflow();
> +	if (p_size < size)
> +		fortify_panic(__func__);
> +	return __real_kmemdup(p, size, gfp);
> +}
> +#endif
> +
>  #endif /* _LINUX_STRING_H_ */
> diff --git a/lib/string.c b/lib/string.c
> index b5c9a1168d3a..ca356e537e24 100644
> --- a/lib/string.c
> +++ b/lib/string.c
> @@ -19,6 +19,8 @@
>   * -  Kissed strtok() goodbye
>   */
>  
> +#define __NO_FORTIFY
> +
>  #include <linux/types.h>
>  #include <linux/string.h>
>  #include <linux/ctype.h>
> @@ -952,3 +954,9 @@ char *strreplace(char *s, char old, char new)
>  	return s;
>  }
>  EXPORT_SYMBOL(strreplace);
> +
> +void fortify_panic(const char *name)
> +{
> +	panic("detected buffer overflow in %s", name);
> +}
> +EXPORT_SYMBOL(fortify_panic);
> diff --git a/security/Kconfig b/security/Kconfig
> index 93027fdf47d1..0e5035d720ce 100644
> --- a/security/Kconfig
> +++ b/security/Kconfig
> @@ -154,6 +154,12 @@ config HARDENED_USERCOPY_PAGESPAN
>  	  been removed. This config is intended to be used only while
>  	  trying to find such users.
>  
> +config FORTIFY_SOURCE
> +	bool "Harden common functions against buffer overflows"
> +	help
> +	  Detect overflows of buffers in common functions where the compiler
> +	  can determine the buffer size.
> +
>  config STATIC_USERMODEHELPER
>  	bool "Force all usermode helper calls through a single binary"
>  	help
> -- 
> 2.12.2
> 

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