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Date: Tue, 18 Apr 2017 16:06:48 -0700
From: Kees Cook <keescook@...omium.org>
To: Mickaël Salaün <mic@...ikod.net>
Cc: LKML <linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org>, Alexei Starovoitov <ast@...nel.org>, 
	Andy Lutomirski <luto@...capital.net>, Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo <acme@...nel.org>, 
	Casey Schaufler <casey@...aufler-ca.com>, Daniel Borkmann <daniel@...earbox.net>, 
	David Drysdale <drysdale@...gle.com>, "David S . Miller" <davem@...emloft.net>, 
	"Eric W . Biederman" <ebiederm@...ssion.com>, James Morris <james.l.morris@...cle.com>, 
	Jann Horn <jann@...jh.net>, Jonathan Corbet <corbet@....net>, Matthew Garrett <mjg59@...f.ucam.org>, 
	Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@...il.com>, Paul Moore <paul@...l-moore.com>, 
	Sargun Dhillon <sargun@...gun.me>, "Serge E . Hallyn" <serge@...lyn.com>, Shuah Khan <shuah@...nel.org>, 
	Tejun Heo <tj@...nel.org>, Thomas Graf <tgraf@...g.ch>, Will Drewry <wad@...omium.org>, 
	"kernel-hardening@...ts.openwall.com" <kernel-hardening@...ts.openwall.com>, Linux API <linux-api@...r.kernel.org>, 
	linux-security-module <linux-security-module@...r.kernel.org>, 
	Network Development <netdev@...r.kernel.org>
Subject: Re: [PATCH net-next v6 08/11] bpf: Add a Landlock sandbox example

On Tue, Mar 28, 2017 at 4:46 PM, Mickaël Salaün <mic@...ikod.net> wrote:
> Add a basic sandbox tool to create a process isolated from some part of
> the system. This sandbox create a read-only environment. It is only
> allowed to write to a character device such as a TTY:
>
>   # :> X
>   # echo $?
>   0
>   # ./samples/bpf/landlock1 /bin/sh -i
>   Launching a new sandboxed process.
>   # :> Y
>   cannot create Y: Operation not permitted
>
> Changes since v5:
> * cosmetic fixes
> * rebase
>
> Changes since v4:
> * write Landlock rule in C and compiled it with LLVM
> * remove cgroup handling
> * remove path handling: only handle a read-only environment
> * remove errno return codes
>
> Changes since v3:
> * remove seccomp and origin field: completely free from seccomp programs
> * handle more FS-related hooks
> * handle inode hooks and directory traversal
> * add faked but consistent view thanks to ENOENT
> * add /lib64 in the example
> * fix spelling
> * rename some types and definitions (e.g. SECCOMP_ADD_LANDLOCK_RULE)
>
> Changes since v2:
> * use BPF_PROG_ATTACH for cgroup handling
>
> Signed-off-by: Mickaël Salaün <mic@...ikod.net>
> Cc: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@...nel.org>
> Cc: Andy Lutomirski <luto@...capital.net>
> Cc: Daniel Borkmann <daniel@...earbox.net>
> Cc: David S. Miller <davem@...emloft.net>
> Cc: James Morris <james.l.morris@...cle.com>
> Cc: Kees Cook <keescook@...omium.org>
> Cc: Serge E. Hallyn <serge@...lyn.com>
> ---
>  samples/bpf/Makefile         |   4 ++
>  samples/bpf/bpf_load.c       |  31 +++++++++++--
>  samples/bpf/landlock1_kern.c |  46 +++++++++++++++++++
>  samples/bpf/landlock1_user.c | 102 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  4 files changed, 179 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)
>  create mode 100644 samples/bpf/landlock1_kern.c
>  create mode 100644 samples/bpf/landlock1_user.c
>
> diff --git a/samples/bpf/Makefile b/samples/bpf/Makefile
> index d42b495b0992..4743674a3fa3 100644
> --- a/samples/bpf/Makefile
> +++ b/samples/bpf/Makefile
> @@ -36,6 +36,7 @@ hostprogs-y += lwt_len_hist
>  hostprogs-y += xdp_tx_iptunnel
>  hostprogs-y += test_map_in_map
>  hostprogs-y += per_socket_stats_example
> +hostprogs-y += landlock1
>
>  # Libbpf dependencies
>  LIBBPF := ../../tools/lib/bpf/bpf.o
> @@ -76,6 +77,7 @@ lwt_len_hist-objs := bpf_load.o $(LIBBPF) lwt_len_hist_user.o
>  xdp_tx_iptunnel-objs := bpf_load.o $(LIBBPF) xdp_tx_iptunnel_user.o
>  test_map_in_map-objs := bpf_load.o $(LIBBPF) test_map_in_map_user.o
>  per_socket_stats_example-objs := $(LIBBPF) cookie_uid_helper_example.o
> +landlock1-objs := bpf_load.o $(LIBBPF) landlock1_user.o
>
>  # Tell kbuild to always build the programs
>  always := $(hostprogs-y)
> @@ -111,6 +113,7 @@ always += lwt_len_hist_kern.o
>  always += xdp_tx_iptunnel_kern.o
>  always += test_map_in_map_kern.o
>  always += cookie_uid_helper_example.o
> +always += landlock1_kern.o
>
>  HOSTCFLAGS += -I$(objtree)/usr/include
>  HOSTCFLAGS += -I$(srctree)/tools/lib/
> @@ -146,6 +149,7 @@ HOSTLOADLIBES_tc_l2_redirect += -l elf
>  HOSTLOADLIBES_lwt_len_hist += -l elf
>  HOSTLOADLIBES_xdp_tx_iptunnel += -lelf
>  HOSTLOADLIBES_test_map_in_map += -lelf
> +HOSTLOADLIBES_landlock1 += -lelf
>
>  # Allows pointing LLC/CLANG to a LLVM backend with bpf support, redefine on cmdline:
>  #  make samples/bpf/ LLC=~/git/llvm/build/bin/llc CLANG=~/git/llvm/build/bin/clang
> diff --git a/samples/bpf/bpf_load.c b/samples/bpf/bpf_load.c
> index 4a3460d7c01f..3713e5e2e998 100644
> --- a/samples/bpf/bpf_load.c
> +++ b/samples/bpf/bpf_load.c
> @@ -29,6 +29,8 @@
>
>  static char license[128];
>  static int kern_version;
> +static union bpf_prog_subtype subtype = {};
> +static bool has_subtype;
>  static bool processed_sec[128];
>  char bpf_log_buf[BPF_LOG_BUF_SIZE];
>  int map_fd[MAX_MAPS];
> @@ -68,6 +70,7 @@ static int load_and_attach(const char *event, struct bpf_insn *prog, int size)
>         bool is_perf_event = strncmp(event, "perf_event", 10) == 0;
>         bool is_cgroup_skb = strncmp(event, "cgroup/skb", 10) == 0;
>         bool is_cgroup_sk = strncmp(event, "cgroup/sock", 11) == 0;
> +       bool is_landlock = strncmp(event, "landlock", 8) == 0;
>         size_t insns_cnt = size / sizeof(struct bpf_insn);
>         enum bpf_prog_type prog_type;
>         char buf[256];
> @@ -94,6 +97,13 @@ static int load_and_attach(const char *event, struct bpf_insn *prog, int size)
>                 prog_type = BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SKB;
>         } else if (is_cgroup_sk) {
>                 prog_type = BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SOCK;
> +       } else if (is_landlock) {
> +               prog_type = BPF_PROG_TYPE_LANDLOCK;
> +               if (!has_subtype) {
> +                       printf("No subtype\n");
> +                       return -1;
> +               }
> +               st = &subtype;
>         } else {
>                 printf("Unknown event '%s'\n", event);
>                 return -1;
> @@ -108,7 +118,8 @@ static int load_and_attach(const char *event, struct bpf_insn *prog, int size)
>
>         prog_fd[prog_cnt++] = fd;
>
> -       if (is_xdp || is_perf_event || is_cgroup_skb || is_cgroup_sk)
> +       if (is_xdp || is_perf_event || is_cgroup_skb || is_cgroup_sk ||
> +           is_landlock)
>                 return 0;
>
>         if (is_socket) {
> @@ -294,6 +305,7 @@ int load_bpf_file(char *path)
>         kern_version = 0;
>         memset(license, 0, sizeof(license));
>         memset(processed_sec, 0, sizeof(processed_sec));
> +       has_subtype = false;
>
>         if (elf_version(EV_CURRENT) == EV_NONE)
>                 return 1;
> @@ -339,6 +351,16 @@ int load_bpf_file(char *path)
>                         processed_sec[i] = true;
>                         if (load_maps(data->d_buf, data->d_size))
>                                 return 1;
> +               } else if (strcmp(shname, "subtype") == 0) {
> +                       processed_sec[i] = true;
> +                       if (data->d_size != sizeof(union bpf_prog_subtype)) {
> +                               printf("invalid size of subtype section %zd\n",
> +                                      data->d_size);
> +                               return 1;
> +                       }
> +                       memcpy(&subtype, data->d_buf,
> +                              sizeof(union bpf_prog_subtype));
> +                       has_subtype = true;
>                 } else if (shdr.sh_type == SHT_SYMTAB) {
>                         symbols = data;
>                 }
> @@ -376,14 +398,14 @@ int load_bpf_file(char *path)
>                             memcmp(shname_prog, "xdp", 3) == 0 ||
>                             memcmp(shname_prog, "perf_event", 10) == 0 ||
>                             memcmp(shname_prog, "socket", 6) == 0 ||
> -                           memcmp(shname_prog, "cgroup/", 7) == 0)
> +                           memcmp(shname_prog, "cgroup/", 7) == 0 ||
> +                           memcmp(shname_prog, "landlock", 8) == 0)
>                                 load_and_attach(shname_prog, insns, data_prog->d_size);
>                 }
>         }
>
>         /* load programs that don't use maps */
>         for (i = 1; i < ehdr.e_shnum; i++) {
> -
>                 if (processed_sec[i])
>                         continue;
>
> @@ -396,7 +418,8 @@ int load_bpf_file(char *path)
>                     memcmp(shname, "xdp", 3) == 0 ||
>                     memcmp(shname, "perf_event", 10) == 0 ||
>                     memcmp(shname, "socket", 6) == 0 ||
> -                   memcmp(shname, "cgroup/", 7) == 0)
> +                   memcmp(shname, "cgroup/", 7) == 0 ||
> +                   memcmp(shname, "landlock", 8) == 0)
>                         load_and_attach(shname, data->d_buf, data->d_size);
>         }
>
> diff --git a/samples/bpf/landlock1_kern.c b/samples/bpf/landlock1_kern.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..b8a9b0ca84c9
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/samples/bpf/landlock1_kern.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,46 @@
> +/*
> + * Landlock rule - partial read-only filesystem
> + *
> + * Copyright © 2017 Mickaël Salaün <mic@...ikod.net>
> + *
> + * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
> + * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2, as
> + * published by the Free Software Foundation.
> + */
> +
> +#define KBUILD_MODNAME "foo"
> +#include <uapi/linux/bpf.h>
> +#include <uapi/linux/stat.h> /* S_ISCHR() */
> +#include "bpf_helpers.h"
> +
> +SEC("landlock1")
> +static int landlock_fs_prog1(struct landlock_context *ctx)

Since this is in samples, I think this needs a lot more comments to
describe each pieces, how it fits together, etc. This is where people
are going to come to learn how to use landlock, so making it as clear
as possible is important. This is especially true for each step of the
rule logic. (e.g. some will wonder why is S_ISCHR excluded, etc.)

> +{
> +       char fmt_error[] = "landlock1: error: get_mode:%lld\n";
> +       char fmt_name[] = "landlock1: syscall:%d\n";
> +       long long ret;
> +
> +       if (!(ctx->arg2 & LANDLOCK_ACTION_FS_WRITE))
> +               return 0;
> +       ret = bpf_handle_fs_get_mode((void *)ctx->arg1);
> +       if (ret < 0) {
> +               bpf_trace_printk(fmt_error, sizeof(fmt_error), ret);
> +               return 1;
> +       }
> +       if (S_ISCHR(ret))
> +               return 0;
> +       bpf_trace_printk(fmt_name, sizeof(fmt_name), ctx->syscall_nr);
> +       return 1;
> +}
> +
> +SEC("subtype")
> +static union bpf_prog_subtype _subtype = {

Can this be const?

> +       .landlock_rule = {
> +               .version = 1,
> +               .event = LANDLOCK_SUBTYPE_EVENT_FS,
> +               .ability = LANDLOCK_SUBTYPE_ABILITY_DEBUG,
> +       }
> +};
> +
> +SEC("license")
> +static const char _license[] = "GPL";
> diff --git a/samples/bpf/landlock1_user.c b/samples/bpf/landlock1_user.c
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..6f79eb0ee6db
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/samples/bpf/landlock1_user.c
> @@ -0,0 +1,102 @@
> +/*
> + * Landlock sandbox - partial read-only filesystem
> + *
> + * Copyright © 2017 Mickaël Salaün <mic@...ikod.net>
> + *
> + * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
> + * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2, as
> + * published by the Free Software Foundation.
> + */
> +
> +#include "bpf_load.h"
> +#include "libbpf.h"
> +
> +#define _GNU_SOURCE
> +#include <errno.h>
> +#include <fcntl.h> /* open() */
> +#include <linux/bpf.h>
> +#include <linux/filter.h>
> +#include <linux/prctl.h>
> +#include <linux/seccomp.h>
> +#include <stddef.h>
> +#include <stdio.h>
> +#include <stdlib.h>
> +#include <string.h>
> +#include <sys/prctl.h>
> +#include <sys/syscall.h>
> +#include <unistd.h>
> +
> +#ifndef seccomp
> +static int seccomp(unsigned int op, unsigned int flags, void *args)
> +{
> +       errno = 0;
> +       return syscall(__NR_seccomp, op, flags, args);
> +}
> +#endif
> +
> +#define ARRAY_SIZE(a)  (sizeof(a) / sizeof(a[0]))
> +#define MAX_ERRNO      4095

Is MAX_ERRNO actually needed?

> +
> +
> +struct landlock_rule {
> +       enum landlock_subtype_event event;
> +       struct bpf_insn *bpf;
> +       size_t size;
> +};
> +
> +static int apply_sandbox(int prog_fd)
> +{
> +       int ret = 0;
> +
> +       /* set up the test sandbox */
> +       if (prctl(PR_SET_NO_NEW_PRIVS, 1, 0, 0, 0)) {
> +               perror("prctl(no_new_priv)");
> +               return 1;
> +       }
> +       if (seccomp(SECCOMP_APPEND_LANDLOCK_RULE, 0, &prog_fd)) {
> +               perror("seccomp(set_hook)");
> +               ret = 1;
> +       }
> +       close(prog_fd);
> +
> +       return ret;
> +}
> +
> +int main(int argc, char * const argv[], char * const *envp)
> +{
> +       char filename[256];
> +       char *cmd_path;
> +       char * const *cmd_argv;
> +
> +       if (argc < 2) {
> +               fprintf(stderr, "usage: %s <cmd> [args]...\n\n", argv[0]);
> +               fprintf(stderr, "Launch a command in a read-only environment "
> +                               "(except for character devices).\n");
> +               fprintf(stderr, "Display debug with: "
> +                               "cat /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/trace_pipe &\n");
> +               return 1;
> +       }
> +
> +       snprintf(filename, sizeof(filename), "%s_kern.o", argv[0]);
> +       if (load_bpf_file(filename)) {
> +               printf("%s", bpf_log_buf);
> +               return 1;
> +       }
> +       if (!prog_fd[0]) {
> +               if (errno) {
> +                       printf("load_bpf_file: %s\n", strerror(errno));
> +               } else {
> +                       printf("load_bpf_file: Error\n");
> +               }
> +               return 1;
> +       }
> +
> +       if (apply_sandbox(prog_fd[0]))
> +               return 1;
> +       cmd_path = argv[1];
> +       cmd_argv = argv + 1;
> +       fprintf(stderr, "Launching a new sandboxed process.\n");
> +       execve(cmd_path, cmd_argv, envp);
> +       perror("execve");
> +       return 1;
> +}

I like this example. It's a very powerful rule to for a program to
enforce on itself. :)

-Kees

-- 
Kees Cook
Pixel Security

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