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Date: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 17:22:54 +0900
From: Hoeun Ryu <hoeun.ryu@...il.com>
To: Kees Cook <keescook@...omium.org>, kernel-hardening@...ts.openwall.com
Cc: Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@....com>, Andy Lutomirski <luto@...nel.org>, 
 PaX Team <pageexec@...email.hu>, Emese Revfy <re.emese@...il.com>, Russell
 King <linux@...linux.org.uk>, x86@...nel.org
Subject: Re: [RFC][PATCH 1/8] Introduce rare_write() infrastructure

On Mon, 2017-02-27 at 12:42 -0800, Kees Cook wrote:
> Several types of data storage exist in the kernel: read-write data
> (.data,
> .bss), read-only data (.rodata), and RO-after-init. This introduces
> the
> infrastructure for another type: write-rarely, which intended for
> data
> that is either only rarely modified or especially security-sensitive. 
> The
> intent is to further reduce the internal attack surface of the kernel
> by
> making this storage read-only when "at rest". This makes it much
> harder
> to be subverted by attackers who have a kernel-write flaw, since they
> cannot directly change the memory contents.
> 
> Variables declared __wr_rare will be made const when an architecture
> supports HAVE_ARCH_WRITE_RARE. To change these variables, either the
> rare_write() macro can be used, or multiple uses of __rare_write(),
> wrapped in rare_write_enable()/rare_write_disable() macros. These
> macros
> are handled by the arch-specific functions that perform the actions
> needed
> to write to otherwise read-only memory.
> 
> The arch-specific helpers must be not allow non-current CPUs to write
> the memory area, run non-preemptible to avoid accidentally leaving
> memory writable, and defined as inline to avoid making them desirable
> ROP targets for attackers.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@...omium.org>
> ---
>  arch/Kconfig             | 15 +++++++++++++++
>  include/linux/compiler.h | 38 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  include/linux/preempt.h  |  6 ++++--
>  3 files changed, 57 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/arch/Kconfig b/arch/Kconfig
> index 99839c23d453..2446de19f66d 100644
> --- a/arch/Kconfig
> +++ b/arch/Kconfig
> @@ -781,4 +781,19 @@ config VMAP_STACK
>  	  the stack to map directly to the KASAN shadow map using a
> formula
>  	  that is incorrect if the stack is in vmalloc space.
>  
> +config HAVE_ARCH_RARE_WRITE
> +	def_bool n
> +	help
> +	  An arch should select this option if it has defined the
> functions
> +	  __arch_rare_write_map() and __arch_rare_write_unmap() to
> +	  respectively enable and disable writing to read-only
> memory.The
> +	  routines must meet the following requirements:
> +	  - read-only memory writing must only be available on the
> current
> +	    CPU (to make sure other CPUs can't race to make changes
> too).
> +	  - the routines must be declared inline (to discourage ROP
> use).
> +	  - the routines must not be preemptible (likely they will
> call
> +	    preempt_disable() and preempt_enable_no_resched()
> respectively).
> +	  - the routines must validate expected state (e.g. when
> enabling
> +	    writes, BUG() if writes are already be enabled).
> +
>  source "kernel/gcov/Kconfig"
> diff --git a/include/linux/compiler.h b/include/linux/compiler.h
> index cf0fa5d86059..f95603a8ee72 100644
> --- a/include/linux/compiler.h
> +++ b/include/linux/compiler.h
> @@ -325,6 +325,44 @@ static __always_inline void
> __write_once_size(volatile void *p, void *res, int s
>  	__u.__val;					\
>  })
>  
> +/*
> + * Build "write rarely" infrastructure for flipping memory r/w
> + * on a per-CPU basis.
> + */
> +#ifndef CONFIG_HAVE_ARCH_RARE_WRITE
> +# define __wr_rare
> +# define __wr_rare_type
> +# define __rare_write_type(v)	typeof(v)
> +# define __rare_write_ptr(v)	(&(v))
> +# define __rare_write(__var, __val)	({		\
> +	__var = __val;					\
> +	__var;						\
> +})
> +# define rare_write_enable()	do { } while (0)
> +# define rare_write_disable()	do { } while (0)
> +#else
> +# define __wr_rare		__ro_after_init
> +# define __wr_rare_type		const
> +# define __rare_write_type(v)	typeof((typeof(v))0)
> +# define __rare_write_ptr(v)	((__rare_write_type(v) *)&(v))

Should we make __rare_write_ptr arch-specific so architectures can
convert the pointer to rw alias from ro address like this ? [1]

#ifndef __arch_rare_write_ptr
# define __rare_write_ptr(v)	((__rare_write_type(v) *)&(v))
#else
# define __rate_write_ptr(v)	__arch_rare_write_ptr
#endif

[1] https://lkml.org/lkml/2017/2/22/254

> +# define __rare_write(__var, __val) ({			\
> +	__rare_write_type(__var) *__rw_var;		\
> +							\
> +	__rw_var = __rare_write_ptr(__var);		\
> +	*__rw_var = (__val);				\
> +	__var;						\
> +})
> +# define rare_write_enable()	__arch_rare_write_map()
> +# define rare_write_disable()	__arch_rare_write_unmap()
> +#endif
> +
> +#define rare_write(__var, __val) ({			\
> +	rare_write_enable();				\
> +	__rare_write(__var, __val);			\
> +	rare_write_disable();				\
> +	__var;						\
> +})
> +
>  #endif /* __KERNEL__ */
>  
>  #endif /* __ASSEMBLY__ */
> diff --git a/include/linux/preempt.h b/include/linux/preempt.h
> index 7eeceac52dea..183c1d7a8594 100644
> --- a/include/linux/preempt.h
> +++ b/include/linux/preempt.h
> @@ -237,10 +237,12 @@ do { \
>  /*
>   * Modules have no business playing preemption tricks.
>   */
> -#undef sched_preempt_enable_no_resched
> -#undef preempt_enable_no_resched
>  #undef preempt_enable_no_resched_notrace
>  #undef preempt_check_resched
> +#ifndef CONFIG_HAVE_ARCH_RARE_WRITE
> +#undef sched_preempt_enable_no_resched
> +#undef preempt_enable_no_resched
> +#endif
>  #endif
>  
>  #define preempt_set_need_resched() \

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