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Date: Mon, 25 Apr 2016 14:10:46 -0700
From: Andrew Morton <akpm@...ux-foundation.org>
To: Thomas Garnier <thgarnie@...gle.com>
Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@...ux.com>, Pekka Enberg <penberg@...nel.org>,
 David Rientjes <rientjes@...gle.com>, Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@....com>,
 Kees Cook <keescook@...omium.org>, gthelen@...gle.com,
 labbott@...oraproject.org, kernel-hardening@...ts.openwall.com,
 linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org, linux-mm@...ck.org
Subject: Re: [PATCH v2] mm: SLAB freelist randomization

On Mon, 25 Apr 2016 13:39:23 -0700 Thomas Garnier <thgarnie@...gle.com> wrote:

> Provides an optional config (CONFIG_FREELIST_RANDOM) to randomize the
> SLAB freelist. The list is randomized during initialization of a new set
> of pages. The order on different freelist sizes is pre-computed at boot
> for performance. Each kmem_cache has its own randomized freelist except
> early on boot where global lists are used. This security feature reduces
> the predictability of the kernel SLAB allocator against heap overflows
> rendering attacks much less stable.
> 
> For example this attack against SLUB (also applicable against SLAB)
> would be affected:
> https://jon.oberheide.org/blog/2010/09/10/linux-kernel-can-slub-overflow/
> 
> Also, since v4.6 the freelist was moved at the end of the SLAB. It means
> a controllable heap is opened to new attacks not yet publicly discussed.
> A kernel heap overflow can be transformed to multiple use-after-free.
> This feature makes this type of attack harder too.
> 
> To generate entropy, we use get_random_bytes_arch because 0 bits of
> entropy is available in the boot stage. In the worse case this function
> will fallback to the get_random_bytes sub API. We also generate a shift
> random number to shift pre-computed freelist for each new set of pages.
> 
> The config option name is not specific to the SLAB as this approach will
> be extended to other allocators like SLUB.
> 
> Performance results highlighted no major changes:
> 
> slab_test 1 run on boot. Difference only seen on the 2048 size test
> being the worse case scenario covered by freelist randomization. New
> slab pages are constantly being created on the 10000 allocations.
> Variance should be mainly due to getting new pages every few
> allocations.
>
> ...
>
> --- a/include/linux/slab_def.h
> +++ b/include/linux/slab_def.h
> @@ -80,6 +80,10 @@ struct kmem_cache {
>  	struct kasan_cache kasan_info;
>  #endif
>  
> +#ifdef CONFIG_FREELIST_RANDOM

CONFIG_FREELIST_RANDOM bugs me a bit - "freelist" is so vague. 
CONFIG_SLAB_FREELIST_RANDOM would be better.  I mean, what Kconfig
identifier could be used for implementing randomisation in
slub/slob/etc once CONFIG_FREELIST_RANDOM is used up?

> +	void *random_seq;
> +#endif
> +
>  	struct kmem_cache_node *node[MAX_NUMNODES];
>  };
>  
> diff --git a/init/Kconfig b/init/Kconfig
> index 0c66640..73453d0 100644
> --- a/init/Kconfig
> +++ b/init/Kconfig
> @@ -1742,6 +1742,15 @@ config SLOB
>  
>  endchoice
>  
> +config FREELIST_RANDOM
> +	default n
> +	depends on SLAB
> +	bool "SLAB freelist randomization"
> +	help
> +	  Randomizes the freelist order used on creating new SLABs. This
> +	  security feature reduces the predictability of the kernel slab
> +	  allocator against heap overflows.
> +
>  config SLUB_CPU_PARTIAL
>  	default y
>  	depends on SLUB && SMP
> diff --git a/mm/slab.c b/mm/slab.c
> index b82ee6b..89eb617 100644
> --- a/mm/slab.c
> +++ b/mm/slab.c
> @@ -116,6 +116,7 @@
>  #include	<linux/kmemcheck.h>
>  #include	<linux/memory.h>
>  #include	<linux/prefetch.h>
> +#include	<linux/log2.h>
>  
>  #include	<net/sock.h>
>  
> @@ -1230,6 +1231,100 @@ static void __init set_up_node(struct kmem_cache *cachep, int index)
>  	}
>  }
>  
> +#ifdef CONFIG_FREELIST_RANDOM
> +static void freelist_randomize(struct rnd_state *state, freelist_idx_t *list,
> +			size_t count)
> +{
> +	size_t i;
> +	unsigned int rand;
> +
> +	for (i = 0; i < count; i++)
> +		list[i] = i;
> +
> +	/* Fisher-Yates shuffle */
> +	for (i = count - 1; i > 0; i--) {
> +		rand = prandom_u32_state(state);
> +		rand %= (i + 1);
> +		swap(list[i], list[rand]);
> +	}
> +}
> +
> +/* Create a random sequence per cache */
> +static void cache_random_seq_create(struct kmem_cache *cachep)
> +{
> +	unsigned int seed, count = cachep->num;
> +	struct rnd_state state;
> +
> +	if (count < 2)
> +		return;
> +
> +	cachep->random_seq = kcalloc(count, sizeof(freelist_idx_t), GFP_KERNEL);
> +	BUG_ON(cachep->random_seq == NULL);

Yikes, that's a bit rude.  Is there no way of recovering from this?  If
the answer to that is really really "no" then I guess we should put a
__GFP_NOFAIL in there.  Add a comment explaining why (apologetically -
__GFP_NOFAIL is unpopular!) and remove the now-unneeded BUG_ON.


> +	/* Get best entropy at this stage */
> +	get_random_bytes_arch(&seed, sizeof(seed));

See concerns in other email - isn't this a no-op if CONFIG_ARCH_RANDOM=n?


> +	prandom_seed_state(&state, seed);
> +
> +	freelist_randomize(&state, cachep->random_seq, count);
> +}
> +

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