Date: Tue, 5 Apr 2016 11:10:40 -0700 From: Kees Cook <keescook@...omium.org> To: James Hogan <james.hogan@...tec.com> Cc: Ralf Baechle <ralf@...ux-mips.org>, "kernel-hardening@...ts.openwall.com" <kernel-hardening@...ts.openwall.com>, Linux MIPS Mailing List <linux-mips@...ux-mips.org>, Matt Redfearn <matt.redfearn@...tec.com>, Aaro Koskinen <aaro.koskinen@...ia.com>, Masahiro Yamada <yamada.masahiro@...ionext.com>, Alexander Sverdlin <alexander.sverdlin@...il.com>, LKML <linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org>, Thomas Gleixner <tglx@...utronix.de>, David Daney <ddaney@...iumnetworks.com>, Jaedon Shin <jaedon.shin@...il.com>, Jonas Gorski <jogo@...nwrt.org>, Paul Burton <paul.burton@...tec.com> Subject: Re: [PATCH v2 00/11] MIPS relocatable kernel & KASLR On Tue, Apr 5, 2016 at 2:09 AM, James Hogan <james.hogan@...tec.com> wrote: > On Mon, Apr 04, 2016 at 04:56:58PM -0700, Kees Cook wrote: >> On Mon, Apr 4, 2016 at 4:37 PM, Ralf Baechle <ralf@...ux-mips.org> wrote: >> > On Mon, Apr 04, 2016 at 12:46:29PM -0700, Kees Cook wrote: >> > >> >> This is great! Thanks for working on this! :) >> >> >> >> Without actually reading the code yet, I wonder if the x86 and MIPS >> >> relocs tool could be merged at all? Sounds like it might be more >> >> difficult though -- the relocation output is different and its storage >> >> location is different... >> >> >> >> > Restrictions: >> >> > * The new kernel is not allowed to overlap the old kernel, such that >> >> > the original kernel can still be booted if relocation fails. >> >> >> >> This sounds like physical-only relocation then? Is the virtual offset >> >> randomized as well (like arm64) or just physical (like x86 currently >> >> -- though there is a series to fix this). >> > >> > On MIPS we normally place the kernel in KSEG0 or XKPHYS which address >> > segments which are not mapped through the TLB so the difference is >> > kinda moot. >> >> Ah-ha, excellent. Does this mean that MIPS is effectively doing memory >> segmentation between userspace and kernel space (or some version of >> x86's SMEP/SMAP or ARM's PXN/PAN)? I don't know much about the MIPS >> architecture yet. > > User and kernel virtual address spaces don't traditionally overlap, so > you don't get that sort of protection at the moment. > > MIPS TLBs do have ASIDs though, and kernel mappings are marked global, > so it could easily reserve an ASID with no mappings, and switch to that > while in kernel mode. It'd have to keep switching between them when > reading/writing userland though, as you can't directly access another > ASID, and I don't think thats a particularly cheap operation, especially > on cores with hardware page table walkers. Yeah, it seems that x86 SMAP has some performance problems too. I'd be curious to see how much of a hit it would be to use ASID switching on MIPS. > EVA (enhanced virtual addressing) is a feature present on recent MIPS > 32-bit i-class and p-class cores (and p6600 too which is 64-bit), > intended to make better use of 32-bit virtual address space. It can > actually overlap kernel and virtual address space, requiring special > instructions for accessing userland mappings, however each segment can't > have distinct TLB mappings for kernel and user mode (if kernel and user > view of segment differs, kernel would need to see it unmapped, i.e. a > window into physical memory). As such its generally better to keep the > lowest segment visible to both kernel and user, so that kernel NULL > dereferences can still be caught, which would negate the point of using > it for security. It is possible to make it work with watchpoints to > catch NULL dereferences in lowest 4KB, so kernel can't access any user > address space directly, but thats a bit of a hack really. Also since EVA > is aimed at making better use of 32-bit address space, it doesn't > address 64-bit. Ah, so it couldn't cover a 64-bit userspace range? It seems like it might work for 32-bit if mmap_min_addr sysctl was used to choose the size of the low-address shared mapping. >> What do I need to fill in on these tables for MIPS? >> >> http://kernsec.org/wiki/index.php/Exploit_Methods/Userspace_execution >> http://kernsec.org/wiki/index.php/Exploit_Methods/Userspace_data_usage > > Both are best addressed using ASID switching in my opinion at the > moment. Okay, thanks, I'll make a note. -Kees > > Cheers > James > >> >> > >> >> > * Relocation is supported only by multiples of 64k bytes. This >> >> > eliminates the need to handle R_MIPS_LO16 relocations as the bottom >> >> > 16bits will remain the same at the relocated address. >> >> >> >> IIUC, that's actually better than x86, which needs to be 2MB aligned. >> > >> > On MIPS a key concern was maintaining a reasonable size for the final >> > kernel image. The R_MIPS_LO16 relocatio records make a significant >> > portion of the relocations in a relocatable .o file, so we wanted to >> > get rid of them. This results in a relocation granularity of 64kB. >> > If we were truely, truely stingy we could come up with a relocation format >> > to save a few more bits but I doubt that'd make any sense. >> > >> >> > * In 64 bit kernels, relocation is supported only within the same 4Gb >> >> > memory segment as the kernel link address (CONFIG_PHYSICAL_START). >> >> > This eliminates the need to handle R_MIPS_HIGHEST and R_MIPS_HIGHER >> >> > relocations as the top 32bits will remain the same at the relocated >> >> > address. >> >> >> >> Interesting. Could the relocation code be updated in the future to >> >> bump the high addresses too? >> > >> > It could but yet again, the idea was to keep the size of the final >> > generated file under control. The R_MIPS_HIGHER and R_MIPS_HIGHEST >> > relocations can be discarded if we constrain the addresses to be in >> > a single 4GB segment. Removing this constraint would make a kernel >> > image much bigger so I suggested to add this restriction at least for >> > this initial version. >> >> Awesome, thanks for the details. >> >> -Kees >> >> -- >> Kees Cook >> Chrome OS & Brillo Security -- Kees Cook Chrome OS & Brillo Security
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