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Date: Fri, 10 Apr 2015 17:38:41 -0400 (EDT)
From: cve-assign@...re.org
To: admin@...bh.am
Cc: cve-assign@...re.org, oss-security@...ts.openwall.com
Subject: Re: CVE request - NodeBB Persistent XSS through Markdown

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> Could I please get a CVE for a Persistent XSS flaw found in NodeBB versions
> < 0.70. The Github repository for this project can be found here:
> https://github.com/NodeBB/NodeBB.
> 
> The vulnerability allows for an attacker to insert malicious links within
> forum posts and threads - that lead to the execution of attacker-defined
> JavaScript on click. This vulnerability not only affects NodeBB but also
> affects any project which uses the markdown-it project before 4.1.0.

We have done a limited amount of research on this, and currently feel
that the last sentence above doesn't precisely describe the situation.
Instead, we feel that there are two independent vulnerabilities.

> NodeBB -
> https://github.com/julianlam/nodebb-plugin-markdown/commit/ab7f2684750882f7baefbfa31db8d5aac71e6ec3

It appears that, in this single commit, NodeBB had both of these changes:

  1. the Markdown component was changed from remarkable to markdown-it

  2. a workaround was added for the markdown-it vulnerability involving
     data: URLs

Based on references such as:

  https://www.reddit.com/r/javascript/comments/2qa0hp/markdown_parser_done_right_100_commonmark_support/
  http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1690601/markdown-and-xss

we think the situation is:

  A. A possibly prevailing opinion is that there is no requirement
     that an implementation of the Markdown language have any
     functionality related to preventing XSS attacks. The rationale is
     that XSS prevention is arguably a responsibility of a code layer
     than occurs after Markdown is converted to HTML.

  B. remarkable is an implementation of the Markdown language that, by
     design, intentionally chose not to try to prevent XSS. Therefore,
     there cannot be a CVE ID for XSS in remarkable.

  C. markdown-it is another implementation of the Markdown language
     that has a substantial amount of code in common with remarkable.
     (For purposes of this CVE request, the reasons behind the similar
     and/or dissimilar code are not really relevant.)

  D. markdown-it made a choice to try to prevent some types of XSS
     attacks, e.g., by blocking javascript: URLs. This might be
     considered an advertised security property. Then, it was reported
     that roughly similar types of attacks with data: URLs were not
     prevented. This can be considered an incomplete list of dangerous
     protocols. The markdown-it maintainer made a commit that might be
     considered a required security update. Thus, it's at least
     plausible that an associated CVE should exist.

  E. The markdown-it maintainer also added a comment suggesting that
     XSS prevention was not intended to cover all cases ("This
     validator does not pretent to functionality of full weight
     sanitizers. It's a tradeoff between default security, simplicity
     and usability. If you need different setup - override validator
     method as you wish. Or replace it with dummy function and use
     external sanitizer."). This potentially can become a major
     complication for CVE assignment. Specifically, if the vendor is
     specifically documenting that XSS prevention is intentionally
     incomplete, we do not think that every future XSS report can have
     a CVE ID. This raises the question of: if there may not be CVE ID
     assignments in the future, is it actually useful to have a CVE ID
     assignment for the data: issue.

  F. Regardless of the status of markdown-it CVEs, there is a
     vulnerability in versions of NodeBB before
     ab7f2684750882f7baefbfa31db8d5aac71e6ec3, because these versions
     apparently omitted both of these:

     -- a Markdown language implementation that was capable of
        preventing XSS with either javascript: URLs or data: URLs

     -- a secondary code layer that was capable of preventing XSS with
        either javascript: URLs or data: URLs

Our decision, at least for now, is to have one CVE ID for D and one
CVE ID for F. Specifically:

  - item D
    
    fix: https://github.com/markdown-it/markdown-it/commit/f76d3beb46abd121892a2e2e5c78376354c214e3

    short description: an earlier version of markdown-it blocked
                       javascript: but not data:

    Use CVE-2015-3295. Note that this CVE is not applicable to any
    version of NodeBB. There was never a version of NodeBB that used
    markdown-it with javascript: blocking and no data: blocking.

 
  - item F

    fix: https://github.com/julianlam/nodebb-plugin-markdown/commit/ab7f2684750882f7baefbfa31db8d5aac71e6ec3

    short description: an earlier version of NodeBB had no
                       protection against either javascript: or data:
                       XSS attacks

    Use CVE-2015-3296.


It's possible that other NodeBB XSS issues will be reported in the
future, and will have other CVE IDs. NodeBB is ultimately responsible
for an XSS prevention strategy, regardless of whether it involves
incorporating different third-party HTML sanitization components or
their own unique code. In other words, we don't feel that the NodeBB
security policy could be "we block only the types of XSS attacks that
happen to be covered by markdown-it." At the moment, we have not heard
of any NodeBB XSS attack that isn't addressed by the
ab7f2684750882f7baefbfa31db8d5aac71e6ec3 patch.

- -- 
CVE assignment team, MITRE CVE Numbering Authority
M/S M300
202 Burlington Road, Bedford, MA 01730 USA
[ PGP key available through http://cve.mitre.org/cve/request_id.html ]
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