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Date: Thu, 27 Sep 2012 22:42:24 -0400
From: George Argyros <argyros.george@...il.com>
To: Solar Designer <solar@...nwall.com>
Cc: oss-security@...ts.openwall.com, Aggelos Kiayias <aggelos@...yias.com>, 
	Vladimir Vorontsov <vladimir.vorontsov@...ec.ru>, gifts <gifts.antichat@...il.com>, 
	Anthony Ferrara <ircmaxell@...il.com>, Pierre Joye <pierre.php@...il.com>
Subject: Re: Randomness Attacks Against PHP Applications

Hi Alexander,

On Sun, Sep 23, 2012 at 1:14 AM, Solar Designer <solar@...nwall.com> wrote:
> George,
>
> I watched a video of your USENIX Security talk the other day (after I
> was done with my experiments with mt_rand() seed cracking, though):
>
> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yE0qTTi-_iQ
>
> Thanks.  Shortly before that, I released a faster version of my PHP
> mt_rand() seed cracker, now down to 1 minute worst case on CPU:
>
> http://www.openwall.com/lists/john-users/2012/09/20/2
> http://download.openwall.net/pub/projects/php_mt_seed/
>
> $ time ./php_mt_seed 1328851649
> Found 0, trying 637534208 - 671088639, speed 63310249 seeds per second
> seed = 658126103
> Found 1, trying 1207959552 - 1241513983, speed 63343447 seeds per second
> seed = 1234567890
> Found 2, trying 4261412864 - 4294967295, speed 63347894 seeds per second
> Found 2
>
> real    1m7.798s
> user    9m1.942s
> sys     0m0.008s
>
> In one minute of real time (on an FX-8120 CPU, using vectorized fused
> multiply-add instructions), it found the original seed, another seed
> that also produces the same mt_rand() output, and it searched the rest
> of the 32-bit seed space (not finding other matches in this case).
>
Very fast and cool! :-)

> Gifts implemented the same thing in OpenCL:
>
> https://github.com/Gifts/pyphp_rand_ocl
> https://github.com/Gifts/pyphp_rand_ocl/tree/SpeedyOCL
>
> His SpeedyOCL branch achieves similar performance (and even 10% better
> than mine in his test of both on a Core i5-2500) on CPUs (with Intel's
> OpenCL SDK) and several times better performance on GPUs.
>
> ...
>
> The way I'd approach this is by limiting the set of possible seeds based
> on the first mt_rand() output (perhaps with a min-max range, so _many_
> seeds will be potentially valid - could be millions, yet significantly
> fewer than the full 4 billion set).  This can be accomplished almost as
> quickly as cracking the seed based on an exact mt_rand() output (full
> 31 bits of it, no min-max range) - that is, in one minute on CPU.  Then
> slower, but more generic code may be used to filter out the impossible
> seeds based on further mt_rand() outputs, until there's just one seed
> value left.  The slowness of that second cracker would not matter much
> because it'd only need to search a much smaller seed space.
>
> A limitation, though, is that the very first mt_rand() output after
> seeding must be among those available, even if in truncated form.  If it
> is not, then more of the state has to be maintained in the initial
> cracking pass, thereby making it slightly slower.  When the first output
> is (at least partially) available, we only need 3 state elements, so
> they're kept in registers nicely.
>
This sounds like a good approach and it would probably be faster when
even truncated outputs are available. The problem is that we
encountered quite a few applications with a pattern of generating
tokens like md5(mt_rand()), and in general we found all kinds of weird
ways to generate tokens that a random developer came up with. In the
md5 case you won't be able to get the output of mt_rand unless you
bruteforce the md5 in the same fashion (which would still be faster
using code like the one you wrote, than using our approach, however
you will need to write some application specific code for cracking and
thats what we wanted to avoid).

Our goal was to provide a usable interface so that people will only
have to deal with the application specific part of the attack, rather
than getting the cracking done correctly. Nevertheless, I think that
applications that leak an mt_rand output are common out there and in
that case your cracker is a simpler and faster choice since it does
not require the user to write any C code at all. For cases when more
complex token generation algorithms are used I think that an approach
that takes care of all the cracking like the one we used may be
better. Also in case you use the option to generate some rainbow
tables (which may take some time too, depending on the "hash" function
used), the online search time will be a few seconds.
Another option could be to combine these two approaches and further
optimize the code that handles the cracking while also providing a
basic optimized version of mt_rand like the one you wrote to use when
writing other more complex "hash" functions.

>> Just as PHP devs use
>> session_start() to start a new PHP session there is a need for a
>> generate_token() function that will return a random token and take
>> care of providing the necessary level of security for this token.
>
> Perhaps, and this is in line with Anthony Ferrara's work on a new
> password hashing API for PHP 5.5 (which will eventually obsolete phpass,
> I guess).  Simpler interfaces that are easier to use correctly than not.
>
> However, a reason why many PHP app devs use mt_rand() and the like is
> because they want to generate tokens of a certain format, such as to
> meet a standard.  One such use is crypt() salts, which we're helping
> eliminate with phpass and then with Anthony Ferrara's new API.  But I
> guess other uses will remain.  So perhaps that generate_token() function
> would need to accept arguments and return tokens of different target
> formats accordingly.  Maybe it should have a format argument similar to
> that of pack().  Its advantage over separate calls to a PRNG and then to
> pack() on the PRNG's output would be that it'd keep the distribution
> uniform.
>
By format in the case of these tokens you mean like user friendly
strings for example?
Many PHP developers attempt to make their tokens have some kind of
format like that so it would be indeed nice if we could add it in this
function.

> It is curious how it is often overlooked that simple modulo division may
> turn a uniform distribution into non-uniform.  Here's an illustration
> (in case this is news to someone on oss-security):
>
> $ php -r 'for ($n = $i = 0; $i < 1000000; $i++) { $x = mt_rand(); $n += ($x < 0x40000000); } echo "$n\n";'
> 499567
> $ php -r 'for ($n = $i = 0; $i < 1000000; $i++) { $x = mt_rand(); $n += ($x < 0x40000000); } echo "$n\n";'
> 500558
>
> $ php -r 'for ($n = $i = 0; $i < 1000000; $i++) { $x = mt_rand() % 500000000; $n += ($x < 250000000); } echo "$n\n";'
> 535117
> $ php -r 'for ($n = $i = 0; $i < 1000000; $i++) { $x = mt_rand() % 500000000; $n += ($x < 250000000); } echo "$n\n";'
> 534124
>
> First two runs show uniform distribution of mt_rand() outputs themselves
> (assuming the 0 to 0x7fffffff range).  The other two runs show
> non-uniform distribution over the 0 to 500 million minus 1 range,
> after the modulo division by 500 million.  (Values lower than half the
> maximum suddenly became more common than higher values.  It was 50/50
> before the modulo division, but became 53.5/46.5 afterwards.  The reason
> is obvious: the original space is not divisible into a whole number of
> 500 million sub-spaces.)
>
> This is why having separate functions that return a random number and
> those that process it to the desired format might not be good enough.
> A single function that does both jobs at once (avoiding the above
> problem by using a smarter approach) could work better.
>
This is a nice point, and something that I have also seen many
developers get wrong when I talk with them about these things. It is
also a very basic and simple argument on why developers should never
handle any cryptographic primitives by themselves...

George

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