Date: Fri, 16 Jan 2015 17:58:43 +1300 From: Amos Jeffries <squid3@...enet.co.nz> To: oss-security@...ts.openwall.com Subject: Re: Re: CVE request: httpd: IP address spoofing in mod_remoteip -----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- Hash: SHA1 On 16/01/2015 8:23 a.m., cve-assign@...re.org wrote: >> Can a CVE be assigned to this please? > > Our interpretation is that the bug reports are actually describing > correct and intended behavior. Similarly, the patch seems to break > some realistic uses of the mod_remoteip module. The patch is only > useful for sites that have chosen to list a trusted proxy that > isn't actually trusted. My 2c from the Squid Project where the X-Forwarded-For HTTP extension was designed. The trust model of that HTTP header is that each hop is trusted whether to correctly erase, append or pass-thru the header it receives. So ... > > For example, > http://mail-archives.apache.org/mod_mbox/httpd-users/201210.mbox/%3CCAHa2qaJSW7Hvk68grWMbbiFSA=zAxQ1nr_-A-K-pDWbAB0Gd1Q@...l.gmail.com%3E > > says: > > 1. Client(126.96.36.199) send a request with spoofed X-Forwarded-For > header. X-Forwarded-For: 188.8.131.52 2. Proxy/Load Balancer(10.0.0.1) > append the client IP address to existing X-Forwarded-For header. > X-Forwarded-For: 184.108.40.206, 220.127.116.11 3. Apache server receive > forwarded request. (httpd.conf) RemoteIPHeader X-Forwarded-For > RemoteIPTrustedProxy 10.0.0.0/8 > > I expected that mod_remoteip would override client IP with 18.104.22.168 > because 10.0.0.1 is trusted and 22.214.171.124 is not trusted. Actually, > client IP was overridden with 126.96.36.199. > The proxy at 10.0.0.1 is declaring that its client was 188.8.131.52. Nothing regarding the 184.108.40.206 or whether the proxy trusts 220.127.116.11 to send accurate XFF header. In fact, quite likely the proxy at 10.0.0.1 does *not* trust 18.104.22.168. Because if it had it could have followed the pass-thru option of just relaying the "X-Forwarded-For:22.214.171.124" its trusted client sent. For whatever reason it chose to relay both 126.96.36.199 and 188.8.131.52 to the Apache server to be re-evaluated. So the bug reports are correct - unless the receiving server admin explicitly configures trust for both 10.0.0.1 and 184.108.40.206 it should be treating the left-most portion of the XFF header (220.127.116.11) as garbage forged by 18.104.22.168. The rightmost value of the untrusted/garbage IPs (22.214.171.124) is the verified client. If the security model were as you think then all HTTP implementations would have to explicitly code in the non-standard trust validation of XFF header before they relay it. Which violates the HTTP standard requirement of ignoring/relaying unknown headers - there is a lot of software predating the XFF headers creation or where it is simply irrelevant. With the Squid designed trust model any hop can relay, append or delete X_Forwarded-For in full compliance with HTTP without introducing the multi-hop forgery loophole demonstrated in the bug reports. The XFF header in a nutshell provides a simple chain of trust to *a* remote client outside a trusted DMZ area in CDN infrastructure. There is no guarantee for that being the origin client, nor even the first in the presented header. > > Here, 10.0.0.1 is trusted to present ANY public IP address, > including both 126.96.36.199 and 188.8.131.52. (10.0.0.1 is NOT, for example, > trusted to present a private IP address such as 192.168.0.2.) The > documentation says "It is critical to only enable this behavior > from intermediate hosts (proxies, etc) which are trusted by this > server, since it is trivial for the remote useragent to impersonate > another useragent." In other words, the operator of the Apache HTTP > Server has delegated to 10.0.0.1 the responsibility for sending an > X-Forwarded-For header that is valid according to the rule set > established by the 10.0.0.1 configuration. Only the 10.0.0.1 > configuration can determine whether 184.108.40.206 is trusted to send an > "X-Forwarded-For: 220.127.116.11" header. The bug reports seem to envision > a world in which the Apache HTTP Server configuration has > information about the proxy-trust rule sets of the entire outside > world. The documentation does not state that it should have that > information, and (from a network-architecture perspective) it > really wouldn't make much sense for it to have that information. > > The documentation says "Processing halts when a given useragent IP > address is not trusted to present the preceding IP address." This > is perhaps confusing because the available directives don't provide > any way to express a rule about whether a specific N-hops-away > external IP address is allowed to present any specific > (N+1)-hops-away external IP address. The directives are only about > the Apache HTTP Server's trust of 1-hop-away external IP > addresses. > > It seems plausible that the documentation means that these two > types of halts were thought to be desirable: > > 1. If the Apache HTTP Server is communicating directly with a > host, and that host is specified in neither a RemoteIPTrustedProxy > nor a RemoteIPInternalProxy directive, then processing halts at > the right-most IP address in the X-Forwarded-For header. Here, the > goal of the halt is to reject an unauthorized proxy. IME not quite. There is no evidence of a proxy in this case. The directly received TCP packet src-IP is the "rightmost" in the XFF chain of trust. It should never get to trusting any of the textual XFF contents if that prefix IP is untrusted. > > 2. If the Apache HTTP Server is communicating directly with a > host, and that host is specified in a RemoteIPTrustedProxy > directive but not in a RemoteIPInternalProxy directive, then > processing halts at the right-most private IP address in the > X-Forwarded-For header. For example: > > X-Forwarded-For: 18.104.22.168, 22.214.171.124, 192.168.0.2, 126.96.36.199, 188.8.131.52 > > halts at 192.168.0.2. From a network-architecture perspective, > this seems to make perfect sense because the meaning of 192.168.0.2 > with respect to host 184.108.40.206 can be completely different from the > meaning of 192.168.0.2 on the intranet of the Apache HTTP Server. > Here, the goal of the halt is to reject an out-of-context intranet > address. > You seem to be off-by-one in the analysis. The halt is *on* the untrusted IP, making that IP itself the indirect client. This case TCP IP is trusted, but 220.127.116.11 untrusted so 18.104.22.168 is the indirect client. That 22.214.171.124 value was appended/relayed by the trusted server at the other end of TCP/IP connection. > > In other words, we believe that the bug report's expectation of > "mod_remoteip would override client IP with 126.96.36.199 because > 10.0.0.1 is trusted and 188.8.131.52 is not trusted" is false. From the > perspective of directly incoming IP packets to the Apache HTTP > Server, 184.108.40.206 is neither trusted nor untrusted. A 220.127.116.11 trust > decision is outside the scope of what the Apache HTTP Server can or > should do. The 18.104.22.168 trust decision belongs exclusively to the > operator of 10.0.0.1. > > If all of this is wrong, and mod_remoteip actually wanted to have > complete information about the proxy-trust rule sets of the > outside world, then security@...che.org (see the > http://www.apache.org/security/committers.html page) can assign a > CVE ID. > Does their intent and documentation matter if they are/were not following someones elses feature design accurately and causing a security impact that should not have existed ? HTH, Amos Jeffries Squid Software Foundation -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE----- Version: GnuPG v2.0.22 (MingW32) iQEcBAEBAgAGBQJUuJqDAAoJELJo5wb/XPRjt/MIAJ43EdJBY577xKHAO3u+5Tcs Fw7NqZy+ep9lE9kngRLgyYPbsb3Xw9lcTW2h2oOviiM9sFMyQWAnp53Xrx9DJnQD LZp1aDlz3LHkIXgApXP3oEwc7GoM24zLIyzdOCjYS+CmZu3G6xlu/sB+6EOUyPkY D7UpLpDgBZf18wPCaMsMNh9fnzfPJAxWmCiDA+yX5qUojy3feFKekOqQzKbLOdyR mp8nFCGEcZiSx4Aw3KthHHsxrtw1hL85BguyMH3kUwPK4qJ4hxtBh6C1nzDo+2T9 sDSY8G+TJWi22dhch3ro2ijmidWS0XiaH7wzgR5yJ9AESn5cjdr7sEeI0ZoBOpo= =MO4f -----END PGP SIGNATURE-----
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