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Date: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 22:15:15 -0700
From: Kees Cook <keescook@...omium.org>
To: Salvatore Mesoraca <s.mesoraca16@...il.com>
Cc: Kernel Hardening <kernel-hardening@...ts.openwall.com>, Laura Abbott <labbott@...hat.com>, 
	LKML <linux-kernel@...r.kernel.org>, 
	Masahiro Yamada <yamada.masahiro@...ionext.com>, linux-doc@...r.kernel.org
Subject: Re: [RFC] kconfig: add hardened defconfig helpers

+lkml, Masahiro, and linux-doc, just for wider review/thoughts.

On Wed, Jul 18, 2018 at 10:38 AM, Salvatore Mesoraca
<s.mesoraca16@...il.com> wrote:
> Adds 4 new defconfig helpers (hardenedlowconfig,
> hardenedmediumconfig, hardenedhighconfig,
> hardenedextremeconfig) to enable various hardening
> features.
> The list of config options to enable is based on
> KSPP's Recommended Settings[1] and on
> kconfig-hardened-check[2], with some modifications.
> These options are divided into 4 levels (low, medium,
> high, extreme) based on their negative side effects, not
> on their usefulness.
> 'Low' level collects all those protections that have
> (almost) no negative side effects.

Likely the "Low" should be on-by-default already, but it's easier to
bike-shed that separately. :)

> 'Extreme' level collects those protections that may have
> some many negative side effects that most people
> wouldn't want to enable them.
> Every feature in each level is briefly documented in
> Documentation/security/hardenedconfig.rst, this file
> also contain a better explanation of what every level
> means.
> To prevent this file from drifting from what the various
> defconfigs actually do, it is used to dynamically
> generate the config fragments.

I like that the configs are generated from the docs! This makes things
very sane to update.

>
> [1] http://kernsec.org/wiki/index.php/Kernel_Self_Protection_Project/Recommended_Settings
> [2] https://github.com/a13xp0p0v/kconfig-hardened-check
>
> Signed-off-by: Salvatore Mesoraca <s.mesoraca16@...il.com>
> ---
>  .gitignore                                 |    6 +
>  Documentation/security/hardenedconfig.rst  | 1027 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  Documentation/security/index.rst           |    1 +
>  Makefile                                   |    6 +-
>  scripts/kconfig/Makefile                   |   72 +-
>  scripts/kconfig/build_hardened_fragment.sh |   54 ++
>  6 files changed, 1143 insertions(+), 23 deletions(-)
>  create mode 100644 Documentation/security/hardenedconfig.rst
>  create mode 100755 scripts/kconfig/build_hardened_fragment.sh
>
> diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
> index 97ba6b7..9141f85 100644
> --- a/.gitignore
> +++ b/.gitignore
> @@ -132,3 +132,9 @@ all.config
>
>  # Kdevelop4
>  *.kdev4
> +
> +# Generated config fragments
> +kernel/configs/hardenedlow.config
> +kernel/configs/hardenedmedium.config
> +kernel/configs/hardenedhigh.config
> +kernel/configs/hardenedextreme.config

I wonder if there should be an explicit "generated/" subdirectory in
kernel/configs/ ?

> diff --git a/Documentation/security/hardenedconfig.rst b/Documentation/security/hardenedconfig.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000..04ae0d9
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/security/hardenedconfig.rst

And thank you for doing this in .rst!

> @@ -0,0 +1,1027 @@
> +.. SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +
> +===============================
> +Hardening Configuration Options
> +===============================
> +
> +This is a list of configuration options that are useful for hardening purposes.
> +These options are divided in 4 levels based on the magnitude of their negative
> +side effects, not on their importance or usefulness:
> +
> +       - **Low**: Negligible performance impact. No user-space breakage.
> +       - **Medium**: Some performance impact and/or user-space breakage for
> +         few users.
> +       - **High**: Notable performance impact and/or user-space breakage for
> +         many users.
> +       - **Extreme**: Big performance impact and/or user-space breakage for
> +         most users.
> +
> +In other words: **Low** level contains protections that *everybody* can and
> +should use; **Medium** level should be usable by *most people* without issues;
> +**High** level may cause *some trouble*, especially from a *performance*
> +perspective; **Extreme** level contains protections that *few people* may want
> +to enable, some people will probably *cherry-pick* some options from here based
> +on their needs.
> +
> +For further details about which option is included in each level, please read
> +the description below, for more information on any particular option refer to
> +their help page.
> +
> +The content of this list is automatically translated into *config fragments*
> +that can be used to apply the suggested hardening options to your current
> +configuration.
> +To use them you just need to run ``make hardened$LEVELconfig`` (e.g.
> +``make hardenedhighconfig``).
> +
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_ACPI_CUSTOM_METHOD=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection

Rather than "self-protection", this is really about blocking direct
kernel memory writing from userspace. Maybe "Kernel memory integrity"?

> +
> +This debug facility allows ACPI AML methods to be inserted and/or replaced
> +without rebooting the system.
> +This option is security sensitive, because it allows arbitrary kernel
> +memory to be written to by root (uid=0) users, allowing them to bypass
> +certain security measures (e.g. if root is not allowed to load additional
> +kernel modules after boot, this feature may be used to override that
> +restriction).
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_BPF_JIT=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** High
> +**- Protection type:** Attack surface reduction

This maybe should be clarified to "Kernel attack surface reduction"?

> +
> +Berkeley Packet Filter filtering capabilities are normally handled
> +by an interpreter. This option allows kernel to generate a native
> +code when filter is loaded in memory. This should speedup
> +packet sniffing (libpcap/tcpdump).
> +
> +Note, admin should enable this feature changing:
> +/proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_enable
> +/proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_harden   (optional)
> +/proc/sys/net/core/bpf_jit_kallsyms (optional)
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_BPF_SYSCALL=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Extreme
> +**- Protection type:** Attack surface reduction

Same.

> +
> +Enable the bpf() system call that allows to manipulate eBPF
> +programs and maps via file descriptors.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_BUG=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection

This was a left-over mistaken prerequisite for hardened-usercopy.
Without CONFIG_BUG, things will still stop kernel thread execution.
It's just much less pretty. :P Perhaps, if kept, this should be listed
as "Improved crash analysis" or "prerequisite"?

> +
> +Report BUG() conditions and kill the offending process.
> +There are very few cases in which this won't be desirable.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_BUG_ON_DATA_CORRUPTION=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** High
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Select this option if the kernel should BUG when it encounters
> +data corruption in kernel memory structures when they get checked
> +for validity.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_CC_STACKPROTECTOR=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection

"probabilistic kernel stack buffer overflow detection"?

There are a lot of "buffer overflow detection" things, so naming which
is which seems helpful, but is maybe overkill? "Self-protection" or
"kernel memory integrity" covers it too... hmmm

> +
> +Turns on the "stack-protector" GCC feature. This feature puts,
> +at the beginning of functions, a canary value on
> +the stack just before the return address, and validates
> +the value just before actually returning.  Stack based buffer
> +overflows (that need to overwrite this return address) now also
> +overwrite the canary, which gets detected and the attack is then
> +neutralized via a kernel panic.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_CC_STACKPROTECTOR_STRONG=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Functions will have the stack-protector canary logic added in any
> +of the following conditions:
> +
> +- local variable's address used as part of the right hand side of an
> +assignment or function argument
> +- local variable is an array (or union containing an array),
> +regardless of array type or length
> +- uses register local variables
> +
> +This feature requires gcc version 4.9 or above, or a distribution
> +gcc with the feature backported ("-fstack-protector-strong").
> +
> +On an x86 "defconfig" build, this feature adds canary checks to
> +about 20% of all kernel functions, which increases the kernel code
> +size by about 2%.

bikeshed: I think both stack protector items should be "Low", but
that's just me.

> +
> +
> +CONFIG_COMPAT_BRK=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection

This is a userspace defense. "Userspace brk ASLR"?

> +
> +Randomizing heap placement makes heap exploits harder, but it
> +also breaks ancient binaries (including anything libc5 based).
> +This option changes the bootup default to heap randomization
> +disabled, and can be overridden at runtime by setting
> +/proc/sys/kernel/randomize_va_space to 2.
> +
> +On non-ancient distros (post-2000 ones) N is usually a safe choice.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_COMPAT_VDSO=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** User space protection
> +
> +
> +Map the VDSO to the predictable old-style address too.
> +Glibc 2.3.3 is the only version that needs it, but
> +OpenSUSE 9 contains a buggy "glibc 2.3.2".
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_DEBUG_CREDENTIALS=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Turn on some debug checking for credential management.
> +These structs are often abused by attackers.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_DEBUG_LIST=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium

bikeshed: Low

> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Turn on extended checks in the linked-list walking routines.
> +These structs are often abused by attackers.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_DEBUG_NOTIFIERS=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Turn on sanity checking for notifier call chains.
> +These structs are often abused by attackers.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_DEBUG_SG=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Turn on checks on scatter-gather tables.
> +These structs could be abused by attackers.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_DEBUG_WX=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Generate a warning if any W+X mappings are found at boot.
> +This is useful for discovering cases where the kernel is leaving W+X
> +mappings after applying NX, as such mappings are a security risk.
> +There is no runtime or memory usage effect of this option once the
> +kernel has booted up - it's a one time check.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_DEFAULT_MMAP_MIN_ADDR=65536

This is, unfortunately, architecture-specific. I'm not sure the best
way to deal with that with the make target...

> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +This is the portion of low virtual memory which should be protected
> +from userspace allocation.  Keeping a user from writing to low pages
> +can help reduce the impact of kernel NULL pointer bugs.
> +
> +This value can be changed after boot using the
> +/proc/sys/vm/mmap_min_addr tunable.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_DEVKMEM=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +The /dev/kmem device can be used by root to access kernel virtual memory.
> +It is rarely used, but can be used for certain kind of kernel debugging
> +operations.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_DEVMEM=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Extreme

Why is this extreme?

> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +The /dev/mem device is used to access areas of physical
> +memory.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_FORTIFY_SOURCE=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Detect overflows of buffers in common string and memory functions
> +where the compiler can determine and validate the buffer sizes.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_FTRACE=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Extreme
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection

bikeshed: Kernel attack surface reduction

> +
> +Enable the kernel tracing infrastructure.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_GCC_PLUGINS=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection

"prerequisite"

> +
> +GCC plugins are loadable modules that provide extra features to the
> +compiler. They are useful for runtime instrumentation and static analysis.
> +
> +See Documentation/gcc-plugins.txt for details.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_LATENT_ENTROPY=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** High
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +With this pluging, the kernel will instrument some kernel code to
> +extract some entropy from both original and artificially created
> +program state. This will help especially embedded systems where
> +there is little 'natural' source of entropy normally.  The cost
> +is some slowdown of the boot process (about 0.5%) and fork and

This doesn't feel like "high" to me.

> +irq processing.
> +Note that entropy extracted this way is not cryptographically
> +secure!
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_RANDSTRUCT=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium

This should surely be High or Extreme. It creates (nondeterministic)
performance impact and makes crashes undebuggable.

> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +With this pluging, the layouts of structures that are entirely
> +function pointers (and have not been manually annotated with
> +__no_randomize_layout), or structures that have been explicitly
> +marked with __randomize_layout, will be randomized at compile-time.
> +This can introduce the requirement of an additional information
> +exposure vulnerability for exploits targeting these structure
> +types.
> +Enabling this feature will introduce some performance impact,
> +slightly increase memory usage, and prevent the use of forensic
> +tools like Volatility against the system (unless the kernel
> +source tree isn't cleaned after kernel installation).
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_STRUCTLEAK=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium

bikeshed: Low

> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +This plugin zero-initializes any structures containing a
> +__user attribute. This can prevent some classes of information
> +exposures.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_GCC_PLUGIN_STRUCTLEAK_BYREF_ALL=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Zero initialize any struct type local variable that may be passed by
> +reference without having been initialized.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_HARDENED_USERCOPY=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** High

bikeshed: Low (all distros have this enabled already)

> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +This option checks for obviously wrong memory regions when
> +copying memory to/from the kernel (via copy_to_user() and
> +copy_from_user() functions) by rejecting memory ranges that
> +are larger than the specified heap object, span multiple
> +separately allocated pages, are not on the process stack,
> +or are part of the kernel text. This kills entire classes
> +of heap overflow exploits and similar kernel memory exposures.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_HARDENED_USERCOPY_FALLBACK=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** High
> +**- Protection type:** None / Aesthetical

This is still self-protection (or "kernel memory integrity"). I would
classify this as Low, but I could see an argument for Medium if
someone trips over a missing whitelist.

> +
> +This is a temporary option that allows missing usercopy whitelists
> +to be discovered via a WARN() to the kernel log, instead of
> +rejecting the copy, falling back to non-whitelisted hardened
> +usercopy that checks the slab allocation size instead of the
> +whitelist size. This option will be removed once it seems like
> +all missing usercopy whitelists have been identified and fixed.
> +Booting with "slab_common.usercopy_fallback=Y/N" can change
> +this setting.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_HIBERNATION=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Extreme
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Enabling suspend to disk (STD) functionality (hibernation)
> +allows replacement of running kernel.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_IA32_EMULATION=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Extreme
> +**- Protection type:** Attack surface reduction
> +
> +Include code to run legacy 32-bit programs under a 64-bit kernel.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_INET_DIAG=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Extreme
> +**- Protection type:** Attack surface reduction
> +
> +Support for INET (TCP, DCCP, etc) socket monitoring interface used by
> +native Linux tools such as ss. ss is included in iproute2.
> +In the past, this was used to help heap memory attacks.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_IO_STRICT_DEVMEM=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium

bikeshed: Low (distros enable this already)

> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +If this option is disabled, you allow userspace (root) access to
> +all io-memory regardless of whether a driver is actively using that
> +range. Accidental access to this is obviously disastrous, but
> +specific access can be used by people debugging kernel drivers.
> +If this option is switched on, the /dev/mem file only allows
> +userspace access to *idle* io-memory ranges (see /proc/iomem)
> +This may break traditional users of /dev/mem (dosemu, legacy X, etc...)
> +if the driver using a given range cannot be disabled.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_KEXEC=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium
> +**- Protection type:** Attack surface reduction
> +
> +kexec is a system call that implements the ability to shutdown your
> +current kernel, and to start another kernel.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_KEXEC_FILE=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium
> +**- Protection type:** Attack surface reduction
> +
> +Enable the kexec file based system call. In contrast to the normal
> +kexec system call this system call takes file descriptors for the
> +kernel and initramfs as arguments.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_KPROBES=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Kprobes allows you to trap at almost any kernel address and
> +execute a callback function.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_LEGACY_PTYS=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** User space protection
> +
> +Linux has traditionally used the BSD-like names /dev/ptyxx
> +for masters and /dev/ttyxx for slaves of pseudo
> +terminals. This scheme has a number of problems, including
> +security. This option enables these legacy devices.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_LEGACY_VSYSCALL_NONE=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low

A rapidly diminishing argument could be made for Medium here.

> +**- Protection type:** User space protection
> +
> +There will be no vsyscall mapping at all. This will
> +eliminate any risk of ASLR bypass due to the vsyscall
> +fixed address mapping. Attempts to use the vsyscalls
> +will be reported to dmesg, so that either old or
> +malicious userspace programs can be identified.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_LIVEPATCH=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Extreme
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Kernel live patching support allows root to modify the running
> +kernel. This is mainly used to apply security updates without
> +rebooting, but it might be abused.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_EXPERT=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium
> +**- Protection type:** None

"prerequisite"?

> +
> +Needed to change CONFIG_MODIFY_LDT_SYSCALL.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_MODIFY_LDT_SYSCALL=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium
> +**- Protection type:** Attack surface reduction
> +
> +Linux can allow user programs to install a per-process x86
> +Local Descriptor Table (LDT) using the modify_ldt(2) system
> +call. This is required to run 16-bit or segmented code such as
> +DOSEMU or some Wine programs. It is also used by some very old
> +threading libraries.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_MODULES=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Extreme
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Kernel modules are small pieces of compiled code which can
> +be inserted in the running kernel, rather than being
> +permanently built into the kernel.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_MODULE_SIG=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Check modules for valid signatures upon load: the signature
> +is simply appended to the module.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_MODULE_SIG_ALL=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Sign all modules during make modules_install. Without this option,
> +modules must be signed manually, using the scripts/sign-file tool.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_MODULE_SIG_FORCE=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Reject unsigned modules or signed modules for which we don't have a
> +key. Without this, such modules will simply taint the kernel.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_MODULE_SIG_FORCE=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** High
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Reject unsigned modules or signed modules for which we don't have a
> +key. Without this, such modules will simply taint the kernel.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_MODULE_SIG_HASH="sha512"
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +This determines which sort of hashing algorithm will be used during
> +signature generation.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_MODULE_SIG_SHA512=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +This determines which sort of hashing algorithm will be used during
> +signature generation.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_PAGE_POISONING=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** High
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Fill the pages with poison patterns after free_pages() and verify
> +the patterns before alloc_pages. The filling of the memory helps
> +reduce the risk of information leaks from freed data. This does
> +have a potential performance impact.
> +Needs "page_poison=1" command line.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_PAGE_POISONING_NO_SANITY=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** High
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Skip the sanity checking on alloc, only fill the pages with
> +poison on free. This reduces some of the overhead of the
> +poisoning feature.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_PAGE_POISONING_NO_SANITY=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Extreme
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Skip the sanity checking on alloc, only fill the pages with
> +poison on free. This reduces some of the overhead of the
> +poisoning feature.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_PAGE_POISONING_ZERO=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** High
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Instead of using the existing poison value, fill the pages with
> +zeros. This makes it harder to detect when errors are occurring
> +due to sanitization but the zeroing at free means that it is
> +no longer necessary to write zeros when GFP_ZERO is used on
> +allocation.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_PAGE_TABLE_ISOLATION=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** High

Oof. This needs to always be on... but it does have a high cost.

> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +This feature reduces the number of hardware side channels by
> +ensuring that the majority of kernel addresses are not mapped
> +into userspace.
> +
> +See Documentation/x86/pti.txt for more details.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_PANIC_ON_OOPS=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Extreme
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Say Y here to enable the kernel to panic when it oopses. This
> +has the same effect as setting oops=panic on the kernel command
> +line.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_PANIC_TIMEOUT=-1
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Extreme
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Set the timeout value (in seconds) until a reboot occurs when the
> +the kernel panics. If n = 0, then we wait forever. A timeout
> +value n > 0 will wait n seconds before rebooting, while a timeout
> +value n < 0 will reboot immediately.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_PROC_KCORE=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Provides a virtual ELF core file of the live kernel. This can
> +be read with gdb and other ELF tools, exposing kernel layout.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_PROFILING=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Extreme
> +**- Protection type:** Attack surface reduction
> +
> +Enable the extended profiling support mechanisms used
> +by profilers such as OProfile.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_RANDOMIZE_BASE=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Randomizes the physical and virtual address at which the
> +kernel image is loaded, as a security feature that
> +deters exploit attempts relying on knowledge of the location
> +of kernel internals.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_RANDOMIZE_MEMORY=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Randomizes the base virtual address of kernel memory sections
> +(physical memory mapping, vmalloc & vmemmap). This security feature
> +makes exploits relying on predictable memory locations less reliable.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_REFCOUNT_FULL=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** High

I'd put this Medium. Though some architectures use this by default (arm64, arm).

> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Enabling this switches the refcounting infrastructure from a fast
> +unchecked atomic_t implementation to a fully state checked
> +implementation, which can be (slightly) slower but provides protections
> +against various use-after-free conditions that can be used in
> +security flaw exploits.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_RETPOLINE=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** High
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Compile kernel with the retpoline compiler options to guard against
> +kernel-to-user data leaks by avoiding speculative indirect
> +branches. Requires a compiler with -mindirect-branch=thunk-extern
> +support for full protection. The kernel may run slower.
> +
> +Without compiler support, at least indirect branches in assembler
> +code are eliminated. Since this includes the syscall entry path,
> +it is not entirely pointless.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_SCHED_STACK_END_CHECK=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +This option checks for a stack overrun on calls to schedule().
> +If the stack end location is found to be over written always panic as
> +the content of the corrupted region can no longer be trusted.
> +This is to ensure no erroneous behaviour occurs which could result in
> +data corruption or a sporadic crash at a later stage once the region
> +is examined. The runtime overhead introduced is minimal.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_SECCOMP=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** User space protection / Attack surface reduction
> +
> +This kernel feature is useful for number crunching applications
> +that may need to compute untrusted bytecode during their
> +execution.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_SECCOMP_FILTER=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** User space protection / Attack surface reduction
> +
> +Enable tasks to build secure computing environments defined
> +in terms of Berkeley Packet Filter programs which implement
> +task-defined system call filtering polices.
> +
> +See Documentation/prctl/seccomp_filter.txt for details.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_SECURITY=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Generic
> +
> +This allows you to choose different security modules to be
> +configured into your kernel.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_SECURITY_DMESG_RESTRICT=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +This enforces restrictions on unprivileged users reading the kernel
> +syslog via dmesg(8).
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_SECURITY_SELINUX_DISABLE=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Generic
> +
> +This option enables writing to a selinuxfs node 'disable', which
> +allows SELinux to be disabled at runtime prior to the policy load.
> +SELinux will then remain disabled until the next boot.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_SECURITY_YAMA=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium
> +**- Protection type:** User space protection
> +
> +This selects Yama, which extends DAC support with additional
> +system-wide security settings beyond regular Linux discretionary
> +access controls. Currently available is ptrace scope restriction.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_SLAB_FREELIST_HARDENED=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium

I think this is Low.

> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Many kernel heap attacks try to target slab cache metadata and
> +other infrastructure. This options makes minor performance
> +sacrifies to harden the kernel slab allocator against common
> +freelist exploit methods.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_SLAB_FREELIST_RANDOM=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium

Low

> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Randomizes the freelist order used on creating new pages. This
> +security feature reduces the predictability of the kernel slab
> +allocator against heap overflows.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_SLUB_DEBUG=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** High

This should be Low, since it doesn't actually do anything until you
enable features on the cmdline.

> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Enalbe SLUB debug support features.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_SLUB_DEBUG_ON=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** High
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Boot with debugging on by default. SLUB debugging may be switched
> +off in a kernel built with CONFIG_SLUB_DEBUG_ON by specifying
> +"slub_debug=-".
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_STATIC_USERMODEHELPER=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Extreme

I mean, this SHOULD be Low but no distro has actually implemented a
helper to do this yet.

> +**- Protection type:** Attack surface reduction
> +
> +By default, the kernel can call many different userspace
> +binary programs through the "usermode helper" kernel
> +interface.  Some of these binaries are statically defined
> +either in the kernel code itself, or as a kernel configuration
> +option.  However, some of these are dynamically created at
> +runtime, or can be modified after the kernel has started up.
> +To provide an additional layer of security, route all of these
> +calls through a single executable that can not have its name
> +changed.
> +
> +Note, it is up to this single binary to then call the relevant
> +"real" usermode helper binary, based on the first argument
> +passed to it.  If desired, this program can filter and pick
> +and choose what real programs are called.
> +
> +If you wish for all usermode helper programs are to be
> +disabled, choose this option and then set
> +STATIC_USERMODEHELPER_PATH to an empty string.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_STRICT_DEVMEM=y

I feel like this should be near IO_DEVMEM and DEVMEM

> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +If this option is disabled, you allow userspace (root) access
> +to all of memory, including kernel and userspace memory.
> +Accidental access to this is obviously disastrous, but specific
> +access can be used by people debugging the kernel.
> +If this option is switched on, the /dev/mem file only allows
> +userspace access to memory mapped peripherals.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Kernel text and rodata memory will be made read-only, and non-text memory will
> +be made non-executable. This provides protection against certain security
> +exploits (e.g. executing the heap or modifying text).
> +These features are considered standard security practice these days.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_STRICT_MODULE_RWX=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +If this is set, module text and rodata memory will be made read-only,
> +and non-text memory will be made non-executable. This provides
> +protection against certain security exploits (e.g. writing to text)
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_SYN_COOKIES=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** User space protection
> +
> +Normal TCP/IP networking is open to an attack known as "SYN flooding".
> +This denial-of-service attack prevents legitimate remote users from being
> +able to connect to your computer during an ongoing attack and requires very
> +little work from the attacker, who can operate from anywhere on the Internet.
> +SYN cookies provide protection against this type of attack.
> +SYN cookies may prevent correct error reporting on clients when the server is
> +really overloaded. If this happens frequently better turn them off.
> +Note that SYN cookies aren't enabled by default; you can enable them by saying
> +Y to "/proc file system support" and "Sysctl support" below and executing the
> +command:
> +
> +echo 1 >/proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_syncookies
> +
> +at boot time after the /proc file system has been mounted.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_THREAD_INFO_IN_TASK=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Move thread_info off the stack into task_struct.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_UPROBES=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** High
> +**- Protection type:** User space protection
> +
> +Uprobes is the user-space counterpart to kprobes: they
> +enable instrumentation applications (such as 'perf probe')
> +to establish unintrusive probes in user-space binaries and
> +libraries, by executing handler functions when the probes
> +are hit by user-space applications.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_USER_NS=n
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium

Unfortunately I think this is High or Extreme. USER_NS gets a lot of use.

> +**- Protection type:** Attack surface reduction
> +
> +This allows containers to use user namespaces to provide different
> +user info for different servers.
> +User namespaces have been abused in the past for privilege
> +escalation.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_VMAP_STACK=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Low
> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Enable this if you want the use virtually-mapped kernel stacks
> +with guard pages. This causes kernel stack overflows to be
> +caught immediately rather than causing difficult-to-diagnose
> +corruption.
> +This is presently incompatible with KASAN.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_X86_SMAP=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium

This is Low.

> +**- Protection type:** Self-protection
> +
> +Supervisor Mode Access Prevention (SMAP) is a security feature in newer
> +Intel processors. There is a small performance cost if this enabled and
> +turned on; there is also a small increase in the kernel size if this is
> +enabled.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_X86_INTEL_MPX=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium
> +**- Protection type:** User space protection

No idea what to do with this one. Support is being removed, etc.

> +
> +MPX provides hardware features that can be used in conjunction with
> +compiler-instrumented code to check memory references. It is designed
> +to detect buffer overflow or underflow bugs.
> +This option enables running applications which are instrumented or
> +otherwise use MPX. It does not use MPX itself inside the kernel or to
> +protect the kernel against bad memory references.
> +
> +
> +CONFIG_X86_INTEL_UMIP=y
> +~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
> +
> +**Negative side effects level:** Medium

Low?

> +**- Protection type:** Information leak prevention
> +
> +The User Mode Instruction Prevention (UMIP) is a security feature in newer
> +Intel processors. If enabled, a general protection fault is issued if the
> +SGDT, SLDT, SIDT, SMSW or STR instructions are executed in user mode.
> +These instructions unnecessarily expose information about the hardware state.
> +The vast majority of applications do not use these instructions. For the very
> +few that do, software emulation is provided in specific cases in protected and
> +virtual-8086 modes. Emulated results are dummy.
> diff --git a/Documentation/security/index.rst b/Documentation/security/index.rst
> index 85492bf..01b8265 100644
> --- a/Documentation/security/index.rst
> +++ b/Documentation/security/index.rst
> @@ -13,3 +13,4 @@ Security Documentation
>     SELinux-sctp
>     self-protection
>     tpm/index
> +   hardenedconfig
> diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
> index a89d8a0..e967504 100644
> --- a/Makefile
> +++ b/Makefile
> @@ -1282,7 +1282,11 @@ MRPROPER_FILES += .config .config.old .version \
>                   Module.symvers tags TAGS cscope* GPATH GTAGS GRTAGS GSYMS \
>                   signing_key.pem signing_key.priv signing_key.x509     \
>                   x509.genkey extra_certificates signing_key.x509.keyid \
> -                 signing_key.x509.signer vmlinux-gdb.py
> +                 signing_key.x509.signer vmlinux-gdb.py        \
> +                 kernel/configs/hardenedlow.config     \
> +                 kernel/configs/hardenedmedium.config  \
> +                 kernel/configs/hardenedhigh.config    \
> +                 kernel/configs/hardenedextreme.config
>
>  # clean - Delete most, but leave enough to build external modules
>  #
> diff --git a/scripts/kconfig/Makefile b/scripts/kconfig/Makefile
> index a3ac2c9..b5ebb13 100644
> --- a/scripts/kconfig/Makefile
> +++ b/scripts/kconfig/Makefile
> @@ -100,6 +100,16 @@ endif
>
>  configfiles=$(wildcard $(srctree)/kernel/configs/$@ $(srctree)/arch/$(SRCARCH)/configs/$@)
>
> +hardened%.config:
> +       $(srctree)/scripts/kconfig/build_hardened_fragment.sh \

I think this needs explicit execution (as you do a few lines later) with:

    $(CONFIG_SHELL) $(srctree)/scripts/kconfig/build_hardened_fragment.sh \
...

since the execute bit regularly gets lost in vcs, bundles, etc.

> +       $* $(srctree)/Documentation/security/hardenedconfig.rst > \
> +       $(srctree)/kernel/configs/hardened$*.config
> +       $(eval configfiles += $(srctree)/kernel/configs/hardened$*.config)
> +
> +       $(if $(call configfiles),, $(error No configuration exists for this target on this architecture))
> +       $(Q)$(CONFIG_SHELL) $(srctree)/scripts/kconfig/merge_config.sh -m .config $(configfiles)
> +       +$(Q)yes "" | $(MAKE) -f $(srctree)/Makefile oldconfig
> +
>  %.config: $(obj)/conf
>         $(if $(call configfiles),, $(error No configuration exists for this target on this architecture))
>         $(Q)$(CONFIG_SHELL) $(srctree)/scripts/kconfig/merge_config.sh -m .config $(configfiles)
> @@ -117,6 +127,16 @@ PHONY += tinyconfig
>  tinyconfig:
>         $(Q)$(MAKE) -f $(srctree)/Makefile allnoconfig tiny.config
>
> +PHONY += hardenedlowconfig hardenedmediumconfig hardenedhighconfig hardenedextremeconfig
> +hardenedlowconfig: hardenedlow.config
> +       @:
> +hardenedmediumconfig: hardenedmedium.config
> +       @:
> +hardenedhighconfig: hardenedhigh.config
> +       @:
> +hardenedextremeconfig: hardenedextreme.config
> +       @:
> +
>  # CHECK: -o cache_dir=<path> working?
>  PHONY += testconfig
>  testconfig: $(obj)/conf
> @@ -127,28 +147,36 @@ clean-dirs += tests/.cache
>
>  # Help text used by make help
>  help:
> -       @echo  '  config          - Update current config utilising a line-oriented program'
> -       @echo  '  nconfig         - Update current config utilising a ncurses menu based program'
> -       @echo  '  menuconfig      - Update current config utilising a menu based program'
> -       @echo  '  xconfig         - Update current config utilising a Qt based front-end'
> -       @echo  '  gconfig         - Update current config utilising a GTK+ based front-end'
> -       @echo  '  oldconfig       - Update current config utilising a provided .config as base'
> -       @echo  '  localmodconfig  - Update current config disabling modules not loaded'
> -       @echo  '  localyesconfig  - Update current config converting local mods to core'
> -       @echo  '  defconfig       - New config with default from ARCH supplied defconfig'
> -       @echo  '  savedefconfig   - Save current config as ./defconfig (minimal config)'
> -       @echo  '  allnoconfig     - New config where all options are answered with no'
> -       @echo  '  allyesconfig    - New config where all options are accepted with yes'
> -       @echo  '  allmodconfig    - New config selecting modules when possible'
> -       @echo  '  alldefconfig    - New config with all symbols set to default'
> -       @echo  '  randconfig      - New config with random answer to all options'
> -       @echo  '  listnewconfig   - List new options'
> -       @echo  '  olddefconfig    - Same as oldconfig but sets new symbols to their'
> -       @echo  '                    default value without prompting'
> -       @echo  '  kvmconfig       - Enable additional options for kvm guest kernel support'
> -       @echo  '  xenconfig       - Enable additional options for xen dom0 and guest kernel support'
> -       @echo  '  tinyconfig      - Configure the tiniest possible kernel'
> -       @echo  '  testconfig      - Run Kconfig unit tests (requires python3 and pytest)'

Can these whitespace changes be avoided?

> +       @echo  '  config                - Update current config utilising a line-oriented program'
> +       @echo  '  nconfig               - Update current config utilising a ncurses menu based program'
> +       @echo  '  menuconfig            - Update current config utilising a menu based program'
> +       @echo  '  xconfig               - Update current config utilising a Qt based front-end'
> +       @echo  '  gconfig               - Update current config utilising a GTK+ based front-end'
> +       @echo  '  oldconfig             - Update current config utilising a provided .config as base'
> +       @echo  '  localmodconfig        - Update current config disabling modules not loaded'
> +       @echo  '  localyesconfig        - Update current config converting local mods to core'
> +       @echo  '  defconfig             - New config with default from ARCH supplied defconfig'
> +       @echo  '  savedefconfig         - Save current config as ./defconfig (minimal config)'
> +       @echo  '  allnoconfig           - New config where all options are answered with no'
> +       @echo  '  allyesconfig          - New config where all options are accepted with yes'
> +       @echo  '  allmodconfig          - New config selecting modules when possible'
> +       @echo  '  alldefconfig          - New config with all symbols set to default'
> +       @echo  '  randconfig            - New config with random answer to all options'
> +       @echo  '  listnewconfig         - List new options'
> +       @echo  '  olddefconfig          - Same as oldconfig but sets new symbols to their'
> +       @echo  '                          default value without prompting'
> +       @echo  '  kvmconfig             - Enable additional options for kvm guest kernel support'
> +       @echo  '  xenconfig             - Enable additional options for xen dom0 and guest kernel support'
> +       @echo  '  tinyconfig            - Configure the tiniest possible kernel'
> +       @echo  '  testconfig            - Run Kconfig unit tests (requires python3 and pytest)'
> +       @echo  '  hardenedlowconfig     - Update current config using hardened features with'
> +       @echo  '                          few negative side effects'
> +       @echo  '  hardenedmediumconfig  - Update current config using hardened features with'
> +       @echo  '                          some negative side effects'
> +       @echo  '  hardenedhighconfig    - Update current config using hardened features with'
> +       @echo  '                          many negative side effects'
> +       @echo  '  hardenedextremeconfig - Update current config using hardened features with'
> +       @echo  '                          even more negative side effects'
>
>  # ===========================================================================
>  # Shared Makefile for the various kconfig executables:
> diff --git a/scripts/kconfig/build_hardened_fragment.sh b/scripts/kconfig/build_hardened_fragment.sh
> new file mode 100755
> index 0000000..92c589a
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/scripts/kconfig/build_hardened_fragment.sh
> @@ -0,0 +1,54 @@
> +#!/bin/sh
> +# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
> +#
> +#  build_hardened_fragment.sh - Generate a config fragment from an .rst
> +#  file for the specified level.
> +#
> +#  Copyright 2018 Salvatore Mesoraca <s.mesoraca16@...il.com>
> +#
> +#  This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
> +#  it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
> +#  published by the Free Software Foundation.
> +#
> +#  This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
> +#  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
> +#  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
> +#  See the GNU General Public License for more details.
> +
> +usage() {
> +       echo "Usage: $0 <level> <file.rst>"
> +       echo "Level must be one of: low, medium, high, extreme."

I would send these to stderr:   >&2

> +       exit 1
> +}
> +
> +if [ "$#" -ne 2 ]; then
> +       usage
> +fi
> +
> +LEVEL="$(echo $1 | tr [A-Z] [a-z])"
> +INPUT="$2"
> +
> +if [ "$LEVEL" != "low" ] && \
> +   [ "$LEVEL" != "medium" ] && \
> +   [ "$LEVEL" != "high" ] && \
> +   [ "$LEVEL" != "extreme" ]; then
> +       usage
> +fi
> +
> +if ! [ -f "$INPUT" ]; then
> +       usage
> +fi
> +
> +if [ "$LEVEL" = "medium" ]; then
> +       LEVEL="(low|medium)"
> +elif [ "$LEVEL" = "high" ]; then
> +       LEVEL="(low|medium|high)"
> +elif [ "$LEVEL" = "extreme" ]; then
> +       LEVEL="(low|medium|high|extreme)"
> +fi
> +
> +egrep -B3 -i "^\*\*Negative side effects level:\*\* $LEVEL$" "$INPUT" | \
> +grep "^CONFIG_" | \
> +sed 's/^\(.*\)=[nN]/# \1 is not set/'
> +
> +exit 0
> --
> 1.9.1
>

Cool! I think being able to point into this document from the
self-protection.rst will be nice.

-Kees

-- 
Kees Cook
Pixel Security

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